El-Fadel, M. and Sbayti, H.
Parking facilities in urban areas: air and noise impacts
Journal of Urban Planning and Development, 127, (1), . (doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9488(2001)127:1(16)).
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Parking problems in major urban centers are typically an accumulation of the effects of several factors, including short-sighted urban planning regulations, pricing distortions, ineffective enforcement, and vague transport and parking policies. This paper evaluates the environmental impacts at a typical proposed parking facility in the greater Beirut area, where parking deficiencies have increased significantly in recent years due to development and reconstruction efforts. The assessment focuses on vehicle-induced pollutant and noise emission impacts, which are evaluated along with possible mitigation measures to reduce or eliminate potential adverse impacts. The assessment showed that the greatest potential impacts would occur during the construction phase. Increased parking capacity proved to have a more adverse effect on air quality than on noise levels. Although air quality and noise levels were not significantly affected with respect to projected baseline levels and under normal operating conditions, mitigation measures are still needed because of the urban nature of the area
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