The University of Southampton
University of Southampton Institutional Repository

CO and VOC as indicators of indoor air quality in underground parking facilities

El-Fadel, M., Alameddine, L., Kazopoulo, M., Hamdan, M. and Nasrallah, R. (2001) CO and VOC as indicators of indoor air quality in underground parking facilities Indoor and Built Environment, 10, (2), pp. 70-82. (doi:10.1177/1420326X0101000203).

Record type: Article


The provision of underground parking facilities (UPFs) has become a necessity particularly in densely popu lated urban areas and business districts. Indoor air quali ty (IAQ) in such facilities is of great concern due to vehi cle-induced emissions. This paper presents an IAQ as sessment at six representative UPFs in Beirut using car bon monoxide and volatile organic compounds as IAQ indicators. For this purpose, concentrations of both pol lutants were measured at different time intervals throughout the day. Vehicular emission factors (EFs) were estimated using the EMFAC7F1.1 model. A tran sient mass balance model was then applied to construct concentration profiles. The ventilation rates required to maintain pollutant concentrations within acceptable standards were estimated under maximum UPF occu pancy, and a sensitivity analysis was conducted to evalu ate the effect of changes in EMFAC7F1.1 input parame ters on EFs and ventilation rates.

Full text not available from this repository.

More information

Published date: March 2001
Keywords: indoor air quality, underground parking facility, vehicle emissions, ventilation, emfac7f1.1


Local EPrints ID: 52933
ISSN: 1420-326X
PURE UUID: c42907a0-bebb-47f3-bc32-c2346a96dde4

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 16 Jul 2008
Last modified: 17 Jul 2017 14:39

Export record



Author: M. El-Fadel
Author: L. Alameddine
Author: M. Kazopoulo
Author: M. Hamdan
Author: R. Nasrallah

University divisions

Download statistics

Downloads from ePrints over the past year. Other digital versions may also be available to download e.g. from the publisher's website.

View more statistics

Atom RSS 1.0 RSS 2.0

Contact ePrints Soton:

ePrints Soton supports OAI 2.0 with a base URL of

This repository has been built using EPrints software, developed at the University of Southampton, but available to everyone to use.

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you continue without changing your settings, we will assume that you are happy to receive cookies on the University of Southampton website.