The University of Southampton
University of Southampton Institutional Repository

Indoor air quality and occupational exposures at a bus terminal

El-Fadel, M. and El-Hougeiri, N. (2003) Indoor air quality and occupational exposures at a bus terminal Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 18, (7), pp. 513-522. (doi:10.1080/10473220301460).

Record type: Article


This article presents an assessment of indoor air quality at a bus terminal. For this purpose, field surveys were conducted, and air samples were collected and analyzed for the presence of selected indoor air quality indicators. Mathematical modeling was performed to simulate bus emission rates, occupational exposure, and ventilation requirements to maintain acceptable indoor air quality. A sensitivity analysis based on literature-derived emission rates estimates was conducted to evaluate the effect of seasonal temperature changes within the terminal. Control measures to improve indoor air quality at the terminal are also outlined. While carbon monoxide concentrations were below the corresponding American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH®) standards under normal operating conditions, they exceeded the 8-hr recommended average standard at peak hours and the World Health Organization (WHO) standard at all times. Total suspended particulates levels, on the other hand, were above the 24-hr American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers' (ASHRAE) standard. Carbon monoxide emission rates that were estimated using the transient mass balance model correlated relatively well with those reported in the literature. Modeling results showed that the natural ventilation rate should be at least doubled for acceptable indoor air quality. While pollutant exposure levels depended on the individual activity patterns and the pollutant concentration, pollutant emissions rates within the terminal were affected mostly by the temperature with a 20-25 percent variation in carbon monoxide levels due to changes in seasonal temperatures.

Full text not available from this repository.

More information

Published date: 7 July 2003
Keywords: indoor air quality, occupational exposure, health effects, ventilation, emission rates, mathematical modeling, bus terminal, diesel


Local EPrints ID: 52951
ISSN: 1047-322X
PURE UUID: 66cea101-864a-4720-a299-9093d3a99f0e

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 15 Jul 2008
Last modified: 17 Jul 2017 14:39

Export record



Author: M. El-Fadel
Author: N. El-Hougeiri

University divisions

Download statistics

Downloads from ePrints over the past year. Other digital versions may also be available to download e.g. from the publisher's website.

View more statistics

Atom RSS 1.0 RSS 2.0

Contact ePrints Soton:

ePrints Soton supports OAI 2.0 with a base URL of

This repository has been built using EPrints software, developed at the University of Southampton, but available to everyone to use.

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you continue without changing your settings, we will assume that you are happy to receive cookies on the University of Southampton website.