Abi Esber, Layale and El-Fadel, Mutasem
In-vehicle CO ingression: validation through field measurements and mass balance simulations
Science of Total Environment, 394, (1), . (doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008.01.034).
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In this study a mass balance modeling approach with measured out-vehicle carbon monoxide (CO) levels and trip-specific movement record as boundary conditions were used to simulate in-vehicle CO concentration profiles. The simulation results were coupled with field measurements to demonstrate the occurrence of CO ingression into the vehicle compartment from the engine combustion and/or exhaust return of the test vehicle. Agreement between field and simulation results was obtained for variable amounts of infiltrated CO equivalent to an in-vehicle emission rate of 250 to 1250 mg/h of CO depending on the vehicle ventilation settings
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