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An attenuation model for distant earthquakes

An attenuation model for distant earthquakes
An attenuation model for distant earthquakes
Large magnitude earthquakes generated at source-site distances exceeding 100km are typified by low-frequency (long-period) seismic waves. Such induced ground shaking can be disproportionately destructive due to its high displacement, and possibly high velocity, shaking characteristics. Distant earthquakes represent a potentially significant safety hazard in certain low and moderate seismic regions where seismic activity is governed by major distant sources as opposed to nearby (regional) background sources. Examples are parts of the Indian sub-continent, Eastern China and Indo-China. The majority of ground motion attenuation relationships currently available for applications in active seismic regions may not be suitable for handling long-distance attenuation, since the significance of distant earthquakes is mainly confined to certain low to moderate seismicity regions. Thus, the effects of distant earthquakes are often not accurately represented by conventional empirical models which were typically developed from curve-fitting earthquake strong-motion data from active seismic regions. Numerous well-known existing attenuation relationships are evaluated in this paper, to highlight their limitations in long-distance applications. In contrast, basic seismological parameters such as the Quality factor (Q-factor) could provide a far more accurate representation for the distant attenuation behaviour of a region, but such information is seldom used by engineers in any direct manner. The aim of this paper is to develop a set of relationships that provide a convenient link between the seismological Q-factor (amongst other factors) and response spectrum attenuation. The use of Q as an input parameter to the proposed model enables valuable local seismological information to be incorporated directly into response spectrum predictions. The application of this new modelling approach is demonstrated by examples based on the Chi-Chi earthquake (Taiwan and South China), Gujarat earthquake (Northwest India), Nisqually earthquake (region surrounding Seattle) and Sumatran-fault earthquake (recorded in Singapore). Field recordings have been obtained from these events for comparison with the proposed model. The accuracy of the stochastic simulations and the regression analysis have been confirmed by comparisons between the model calculations and the actual field observations. It is emphasized that obtaining representative estimates for Q for input into the model is equally important.Thus, this paper forms part of the long-term objective of the authors to develop more effective communications across the engineering and seismological disciplines.
distant, earthquake, displacement, response spectrum, ground shaking
0098-8847
183-210
Chandler, Adrian
c54da253-a337-4175-9694-8fe04e53adf5
Lam, Nelson
cd5c5bd3-2634-4afa-8b86-f03f1fe22a09
Chandler, Adrian
c54da253-a337-4175-9694-8fe04e53adf5
Lam, Nelson
cd5c5bd3-2634-4afa-8b86-f03f1fe22a09

Chandler, Adrian and Lam, Nelson (2004) An attenuation model for distant earthquakes. Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 33 (2), 183-210. (doi:10.1002/eqe.342).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Large magnitude earthquakes generated at source-site distances exceeding 100km are typified by low-frequency (long-period) seismic waves. Such induced ground shaking can be disproportionately destructive due to its high displacement, and possibly high velocity, shaking characteristics. Distant earthquakes represent a potentially significant safety hazard in certain low and moderate seismic regions where seismic activity is governed by major distant sources as opposed to nearby (regional) background sources. Examples are parts of the Indian sub-continent, Eastern China and Indo-China. The majority of ground motion attenuation relationships currently available for applications in active seismic regions may not be suitable for handling long-distance attenuation, since the significance of distant earthquakes is mainly confined to certain low to moderate seismicity regions. Thus, the effects of distant earthquakes are often not accurately represented by conventional empirical models which were typically developed from curve-fitting earthquake strong-motion data from active seismic regions. Numerous well-known existing attenuation relationships are evaluated in this paper, to highlight their limitations in long-distance applications. In contrast, basic seismological parameters such as the Quality factor (Q-factor) could provide a far more accurate representation for the distant attenuation behaviour of a region, but such information is seldom used by engineers in any direct manner. The aim of this paper is to develop a set of relationships that provide a convenient link between the seismological Q-factor (amongst other factors) and response spectrum attenuation. The use of Q as an input parameter to the proposed model enables valuable local seismological information to be incorporated directly into response spectrum predictions. The application of this new modelling approach is demonstrated by examples based on the Chi-Chi earthquake (Taiwan and South China), Gujarat earthquake (Northwest India), Nisqually earthquake (region surrounding Seattle) and Sumatran-fault earthquake (recorded in Singapore). Field recordings have been obtained from these events for comparison with the proposed model. The accuracy of the stochastic simulations and the regression analysis have been confirmed by comparisons between the model calculations and the actual field observations. It is emphasized that obtaining representative estimates for Q for input into the model is equally important.Thus, this paper forms part of the long-term objective of the authors to develop more effective communications across the engineering and seismological disciplines.

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More information

Published date: February 2004
Keywords: distant, earthquake, displacement, response spectrum, ground shaking

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 53128
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/53128
ISSN: 0098-8847
PURE UUID: 1953cd1a-94f7-46d8-9fbc-db7f4fc4473d

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Date deposited: 21 Jul 2008
Last modified: 13 Mar 2019 20:41

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