Darby, M.S.B., May-Smith, T.C., Eason, R.W., Donnelly, T., Lunney, J.G. and Rogers, K.D.
A comparative study of gadolinium gallium garnet growth by femtosecond and nanosecond pulsed laser deposition
Applied Surface Science, 254, (11), . (doi:10.1016/j.apsusc.2007.11.016).
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The growth of epitaxial Nd:Gd (YAG) by femtosecond pulsed laser deposition is reported. We have used a Ti:sapphire laser at a wavelength of 800 nm and pulse length of 130 fs, operating at a repetition rate of 1 kHz. The film properties have been studied systematically as a function of the deposition parameters of laser fluence, spot-size, oxygen pressure, target-substrate distance and temperature. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffractometry were used to characterise the surface structure and crystallinity of the films. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that epitaxial growth has occurred. A comparison between the ion velocities produced by nanosecond and femtosecond laser ablation of the GGG target material has been investigated by the Langmuir probe technique. The results indicate a large difference in the plasma characteristics between femtosecond and nanosecond ablation, with ion velocities up to eight times faster observed in the femtosecond case.
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