The University of Southampton
University of Southampton Institutional Repository

Benign by design. New catalysts for an environmentally conscious age

Thomas, J.M., Raja, R., Sankar, G., Bell, R.G. and Lewis, D.W. (2001) Benign by design. New catalysts for an environmentally conscious age Pure and Applied Chemistry, 73, (7), pp. 1087-1101.

Record type: Article


There is a pressing need for: (i) cleaner fuels (free of aromatics and of minimal sulfur content) or ones that convert chemical energy directly to electricity, silently and without production of noxious oxides and particulates; (ii) chemical, petrochemical, and pharmaceutical processes that may be conducted in a one-step, solvent-free manner, and that use air as the preferred oxidant; and (iii) industrial processes that minimize consumption of energy, production of waste or the use of corrosive, explosive, volatile and nonbiodegradable materials. All these needs and other desiderata, such as the in situ production and containment of aggressive and hazardous reagents, and the avoidance of use of ecologically harmful elements, may be achieved by designing the appropriate heterogeneous inorganic catalyst, which, ideally should be cheap, readily preparable, and fully characterizable, preferably under in situ reaction conditions. A range of nanoporous and nanoparticle catalysts, designed, synthesized, characterized, and tested by the authors and their colleagues, that meet most of the stringent demands of sustainable development and responsible (clean) technology is described. Specific examples that are highlighted include: (a) the production of adipic acid (precursor of polyamides and urethanes) without the use of concentrated nitric acid or the production of greenhouse gases such as nitrous oxide; (b) the production of caprolactam (precursor of nylon) without the use of oleum and hydroxylamine sulfate; and (c) the terminal oxyfunctionalization of linear alkanes in air. The topic of biocatalysis and sustainable development is also briefly discussed, and a cautionary note is sounded concerning fast screening methods for the discovery of new inorganic catalysts.

Full text not available from this repository.

More information

Published date: 2001
Keywords: adipic acid, aerial oxidation, selective oxidation


Local EPrints ID: 54155
ISSN: 0033-4545
PURE UUID: 07c1ab8f-570a-4f17-b129-dc22d8ce3b83
ORCID for R. Raja: ORCID iD

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 31 Jul 2008
Last modified: 17 Jul 2017 14:36

Export record


Author: J.M. Thomas
Author: R. Raja ORCID iD
Author: G. Sankar
Author: R.G. Bell
Author: D.W. Lewis

University divisions

Download statistics

Downloads from ePrints over the past year. Other digital versions may also be available to download e.g. from the publisher's website.

View more statistics

Atom RSS 1.0 RSS 2.0

Contact ePrints Soton:

ePrints Soton supports OAI 2.0 with a base URL of

This repository has been built using EPrints software, developed at the University of Southampton, but available to everyone to use.

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you continue without changing your settings, we will assume that you are happy to receive cookies on the University of Southampton website.