Leslie, Kris D. and Fox, Keith R.
Interaction of Hoechst 33258 and echinomycin with nucleosomal DNA fragments containing isolated ligand binding sites
Biochemistry, 41, (10), . (doi:10.1021/bi012020z).
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We have examined the interaction of Hoechst 33258 and echinomycin with nucleosomal DNA fragments which contain isolated ligand binding sites. A 145 base pair fragment was prepared on the basis of the sequence of tyrT DNA, which contained no CpG or (A/T)4 binding sites for these ligands. Isolated binding sites were introduced into this fragment at discrete locations where the minor groove is known to face toward or away from the protein core when reconstituted onto nucleosome core particles. The interaction of ligands with target sites on these nucleosomal DNA fragments was assessed by DNase I footprinting. We find that Hoechst 33258 can bind to single nucleosomal sites which face both toward and away from the protein core, without affecting the nucleosome structure. Hoechst binding is also observed on nucleosomal fragments which contain two or more drug binding sites, though in these cases the footprints are accompanied by the presence of new cleavage products in positions which suggest that the ligand has caused a proportion of the DNA molecules to adopt a new rotational positioning on the protein surface. Hoechst 33258 does not affect nucleosome reconstitution with any of these fragments. In contrast, the bifunctional intercalating antibiotic echinomycin is not able to bind to single nucleosomal CpG sites. Echinomycin footprints are observed on nucleosomal fragments containing two or more CpG sites, but there are no changes in the cleavage patterns in the remainder of the fragment. Echinomycin abolishes nucleosome reconstitution when included in the reconstitution mixture.
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