The University of Southampton
University of Southampton Institutional Repository

Increased leaf area expansion of hybrid poplar in elevated CO2. From controlled environments to open-top chambers and to FACE

Taylor, G., Ceulemans, R., Ferris, R., Gardner, S.D.L. and Shao, B.Y. (2001) Increased leaf area expansion of hybrid poplar in elevated CO2. From controlled environments to open-top chambers and to FACE Environmental Pollution, 115, (3), pp. 463-472. (doi:10.1016/S0269-7491(01)00235-4).

Record type: Article


We examined the response of hybrid poplar to elevated CO2 in contrasting growth environments: controlled environment chamber (CE), open-top chamber (OTC) and poplar free air CO2 enrichment (POPFACE) in order to compare short versus long-term effects and to determine whether generalisations in response are possible for this fast growing tree. Leaf growth, which for poplar is an important determinant of stemwood productivity was followed in all environments, as were the determinants of leaf growth—cell expansion and cell production. Elevated CO2 (550–700 ?mol mol?1, depending on environment) resulted in an increase in final leaf size for Populus trichocarpa×Populus deltoides (Populus×interamericana) and P. deltoides×Populus nigra (Populus×euramericana), irrespective of whether plants were exposed during a short-term CE glasshouse study (90 days), a long-term OTC experiment (3 years) or during the first year of a POPFACE experiment. An exception was observed in the closed canopy POPFACE experiment, where final leaf size remained unaltered by CO2. Increased leaf extension rate was observed in elevated CO2 in all experiments, at some point during leaf development, as determined by leaf length. Again the exception were the POPFACE experiment, where effects were not statistically significant. Leaf production and specific leaf area (SLA) were increased and decreased, respectively, on five out of six occasions, although both were only statistically significant on two occasions and interestingly for SLA never in the FACE experiment. Although both cell expansion and cell production were sensitive to CO2 concentration, effects appeared highly dependent on growth environment and genotype. However, increased leaf cell expansion in elevated CO2 was often associated with changes in the biophysical properties of the cell wall, usually increased cell wall plasticity. This research has shown that enhanced leaf area development was a consistent response to elevated CO2 but that the magnitude of this response is likely to decline, in long-term exposure to elevated CO2. Effects on SLA and leaf production suggest that CE and OTC experiments may not always provide good predictors of the ‘qualitative’ effects of elevated CO2 in long-term ecosystem experiments.

Full text not available from this repository.

More information

Published date: December 2001
Keywords: elevated CO2, leaf growth, hybrid poplar, leaf cell expansion and production, controlled environment, open top chamber, POPFACE


Local EPrints ID: 56167
ISSN: 0269-7491
PURE UUID: b221fbcb-8fa0-4cc2-a329-876bb663c345

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 07 Aug 2008
Last modified: 17 Jul 2017 14:31

Export record



Author: G. Taylor
Author: R. Ceulemans
Author: R. Ferris
Author: S.D.L. Gardner
Author: B.Y. Shao

University divisions

Download statistics

Downloads from ePrints over the past year. Other digital versions may also be available to download e.g. from the publisher's website.

View more statistics

Atom RSS 1.0 RSS 2.0

Contact ePrints Soton:

ePrints Soton supports OAI 2.0 with a base URL of

This repository has been built using EPrints software, developed at the University of Southampton, but available to everyone to use.

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you continue without changing your settings, we will assume that you are happy to receive cookies on the University of Southampton website.