Harder, A., Schmitt-Wrede, H.P., Krucken, J., Marinovski, P., Wunderlich, F., Willson, J., Amliwala, K., Holden-Dye, L. and Walker, R.
Cyclooctadepsipeptides - an anthelmintically active class of compounds exhibiting a novel mode of action
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 22, (3), . (doi:10.1016/S0924-8579(03)00219-X).
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There are three major classes of anthelmintics for veterinary use: the benzimidazoles/prebenzimidazoles, the tetrahydropyrimidines/imidazothiazoles, and the macrocyclic lactones. In nematodes, there are five targets for the existing anthelmintics: the nicotinergic acetylcholine receptor which is the target of tetrahydropyrimidines/imidazothiazoles and indirectly that of the acetylcholineesterase inhibitors; the GABA receptor which is the target of piperazine, the glutamate-gated chloride channel as the target of the macrocyclic lactones, and ß-tubulin as the target of prebenzimidazoles/benzimidazoles. All these anthelmintics are now in serious danger because of the worldwide spread of resistant nematodes in sheep, cattle, horses and pigs. The class of cyclooctadepsipeptides has entered the scene of anthelmintic research in the early 1990s. PF1022A, the first anthelmintically active member, is a natural compound from the fungus Mycelia sterilia that belongs to the microflora of the leaves of the Camellia japonica. PF1022A contains 4 N-Methyl-Image -leucines, 2 Image -lactic acids and 2-Image -phenyllactic acids arranged as a cyclic octadepsipeptide with an alternating Image -Image -Image -configuration. Emodepside is a semisynthetic derivative of PF1022A with a morpholine ring at each of the two Image -phenyllactic acids in para position. The anthelmintic activity is directed against gastrointestinal nematodes in chicken, mice, rats, meriones, dogs, cats, sheep, cattle and horses. Moreover, emodepside is active against Trichinella spiralis larvae in muscles, microfilariae and preadult filariae and Dictyocaulus viviparus. PF1022A and emodepside are fully effective against benzimidazole-, levamisole or ivermectin-resistant nematodes in sheep and cattle. In Ascaris suum both cyclooctadepsipeptides lead to paralysis indicating a neuropharmacological action of these compounds. Using a PF1022A-ligand immunoscreening of a cDNA library from Haemonchus contortus a cDNA clone of 3569 base pairs could be identified. This clone codes for a novel 110 kDa heptahelical transmembrane receptor, named HC110R. Database- and phylogenetic analysis reveals that this receptor is a homolog to B0457.1 from Caenorhabditis elegans and has significant similarity to latrophilins from human, cattle and rat. HC110R is located in the plasma membrane and in lysosomes and endosomes. ?-Latrotoxin, the poison of the black widow spider, binds at a 54 kDa aminoterminal fragment of HC110R. After binding a Ca2+-influx into HEK293 cells is induced which can be blocked by EGTA, Cd2+ or nifedipin. PF1022A or emodepside also bind to this 54 kDa aminoterminal region of HC110R and interact with the functional responses of ?-latrotoxin. In C. elegans antibodies against the C-or N-terminus of HC110R bind to the B0457.1 protein located in the pharynx. Electrophysiological studies reveal that emodepside inhibits pharyngeal pumping of the nematodes in a concentration dependent way with an IC50 value of about 4 nM. Thus, it is tempting to speculate that emodepside exerts its action on nematodes via a latrophilin-like receptor which might have an important regulatory function on pharyngeal pumping.
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