The University of Southampton
University of Southampton Institutional Repository

Cytokine-induced enhancement of autoimmune inflammation in the brain and spinal cord: implications for multiple sclerosis

Sun, D., Newman, T.A., Perry, V.H. and Weller, R.O. (2004) Cytokine-induced enhancement of autoimmune inflammation in the brain and spinal cord: implications for multiple sclerosis Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology, 30, (4), pp. 374-384. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-2990.2003.00546.x).

Record type: Article


Multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) are autoimmune inflammatory diseases in which cytokines are intimately involved. Here we test the hypothesis that injection of pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF?) and interferon gamma (IFN?) into the brain of animals in the prodromal phase of EAE significantly enhances inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). We were particularly interested to learn whether a local increase in cytokines influenced the pathology locally, or more extensively, within the CNS. EAE was induced in female adult Lewis rats. Eight days post-inoculation, TNF? or INF? was injected into one cerebral hemisphere. Days 11 and 13 post-inoculation (3 and 5 days after the injection of cytokine) inflammation was quantified by the number of perivascular cuffs and the degree of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression by microglia. Normal animals injected with cytokines, and EAE animals with saline injection served as controls. Results: microglial activation was increased three- to fourfold in the brain and eightfold in the spinal cord (P ? 0.05); lymphocyte invasion was increased sixfold in the brain and three- to fourfold in the spinal cord (P ? 0.01) following injections of TNF? or INF? in EAE animals compared with controls. Significant axonal damage was observed in white matter associated with the perivascular cuffs. Conclusion: local changes in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines within the brain in EAE results in the widespread enhancement of autoimmune inflammation within the brain and cord, and exacerbation of clinical symptoms.

Full text not available from this repository.

More information

Published date: 1 August 2004
Keywords: brain, cytokine, experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), inflammation, interferon-?, multiple sclerosis, tumour necrosis factor-?


Local EPrints ID: 56664
ISSN: 0305-1846
PURE UUID: 03dffd59-43cd-4803-a081-65d19018d894

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 08 Aug 2008
Last modified: 17 Jul 2017 14:30

Export record



Author: D. Sun
Author: T.A. Newman
Author: V.H. Perry
Author: R.O. Weller

University divisions

Download statistics

Downloads from ePrints over the past year. Other digital versions may also be available to download e.g. from the publisher's website.

View more statistics

Atom RSS 1.0 RSS 2.0

Contact ePrints Soton:

ePrints Soton supports OAI 2.0 with a base URL of

This repository has been built using EPrints software, developed at the University of Southampton, but available to everyone to use.

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you continue without changing your settings, we will assume that you are happy to receive cookies on the University of Southampton website.