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The role of tryptophan residues in an integral membrane protein: Diacylglycerol kinase

The role of tryptophan residues in an integral membrane protein: Diacylglycerol kinase
The role of tryptophan residues in an integral membrane protein: Diacylglycerol kinase
Tryptophan residues are thought to play special roles in integral membrane proteins, anchoring transmembrane -helices into the lipid bilayer. We have studied the effect of mutating the five Trp residues in the diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) of Escherichia coli to Leu residues. The fluorescence emission maxima for DGK and a variety of Trp mutants in bilayers of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine [di(C18:1)PC] are all centered at ca. 327 nm, suggesting that all five Trp residues are located close to the glycerol backbone region of the bilayer. This is also consistent with fluorescence quenching experiments, measuring the separation between the Trp residues and the bromine atoms in a bilayer of dibromostearoylphosphatidylcholine. Mutation of Trp residues in DGK was found to have significant effects on activity for DGK reconstituted into bilayers of di(C18:1)PC containing 30 mol % 1,2-dihexanoylglycerol (DHG). Of the mutants containing a single Trp residue, only that containing Trp-112 was found to give active protein. The presence of both Trp-25 and Trp-112 gave higher activity than Trp-112 alone. Trp-25 and Trp-112 are the most important Trp residues in DGK as far as activity is concerned. Effects of mutations on Km for DHG were generally greater than effects on vmax. The activity of wild-type and mutant DHGs reconstituted into bilayers of phosphatidylcholines was sensitive to the chain length of the phospholipid, with highest activities for chain lengths of C18 or C20 and lower activities in phosphatidylcholines with shorter or longer chains. Compared to wild-type DGK, the Trp mutants were less affected by long-chain phosphatidylcholines but more affected by short-chain phospholipids. In mutants lacking Trp-25, low activities in short-chain phospholipids followed from a decrease in vmax compared to wild type, combined with an increase in Km value for DHG, as observed in the wild type. It is suggested that Trp-25 plays a role in maintaining the alignment of ATP and DHG at the active site. Fluorescence emission spectra for the Trp mutants do not change significantly with changing fatty acyl chain length from C14 to C24, showing efficient hydrophobic matching between DGK and the surrounding lipid bilayer. It is suggested that hydrophobic matching is achieved by tilting of the transmembrane -helix or rotation of residues at the ends of the helices about the C-C bond linking the residue to the helix backbone. As well as any structural effects, the presence of Trp residues in DGK has a clear effect on thermal stability.
0006-2960
11065-11073
Clark, Elizabeth H.
8d08cb80-14c3-4b78-98bc-53c488068f7b
East, J. Malcolm
9fe7f794-1d89-4935-9a99-b831d786056e
Lee, Anthony G.
0891914c-e0e2-4ee1-b43e-1b70eb072d8e
Clark, Elizabeth H.
8d08cb80-14c3-4b78-98bc-53c488068f7b
East, J. Malcolm
9fe7f794-1d89-4935-9a99-b831d786056e
Lee, Anthony G.
0891914c-e0e2-4ee1-b43e-1b70eb072d8e

Clark, Elizabeth H., East, J. Malcolm and Lee, Anthony G. (2003) The role of tryptophan residues in an integral membrane protein: Diacylglycerol kinase. Biochemistry, 42 (37), 11065-11073. (doi:10.1021/bi034607e).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Tryptophan residues are thought to play special roles in integral membrane proteins, anchoring transmembrane -helices into the lipid bilayer. We have studied the effect of mutating the five Trp residues in the diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) of Escherichia coli to Leu residues. The fluorescence emission maxima for DGK and a variety of Trp mutants in bilayers of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine [di(C18:1)PC] are all centered at ca. 327 nm, suggesting that all five Trp residues are located close to the glycerol backbone region of the bilayer. This is also consistent with fluorescence quenching experiments, measuring the separation between the Trp residues and the bromine atoms in a bilayer of dibromostearoylphosphatidylcholine. Mutation of Trp residues in DGK was found to have significant effects on activity for DGK reconstituted into bilayers of di(C18:1)PC containing 30 mol % 1,2-dihexanoylglycerol (DHG). Of the mutants containing a single Trp residue, only that containing Trp-112 was found to give active protein. The presence of both Trp-25 and Trp-112 gave higher activity than Trp-112 alone. Trp-25 and Trp-112 are the most important Trp residues in DGK as far as activity is concerned. Effects of mutations on Km for DHG were generally greater than effects on vmax. The activity of wild-type and mutant DHGs reconstituted into bilayers of phosphatidylcholines was sensitive to the chain length of the phospholipid, with highest activities for chain lengths of C18 or C20 and lower activities in phosphatidylcholines with shorter or longer chains. Compared to wild-type DGK, the Trp mutants were less affected by long-chain phosphatidylcholines but more affected by short-chain phospholipids. In mutants lacking Trp-25, low activities in short-chain phospholipids followed from a decrease in vmax compared to wild type, combined with an increase in Km value for DHG, as observed in the wild type. It is suggested that Trp-25 plays a role in maintaining the alignment of ATP and DHG at the active site. Fluorescence emission spectra for the Trp mutants do not change significantly with changing fatty acyl chain length from C14 to C24, showing efficient hydrophobic matching between DGK and the surrounding lipid bilayer. It is suggested that hydrophobic matching is achieved by tilting of the transmembrane -helix or rotation of residues at the ends of the helices about the C-C bond linking the residue to the helix backbone. As well as any structural effects, the presence of Trp residues in DGK has a clear effect on thermal stability.

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More information

Submitted date: 16 April 2003
Published date: 1 September 2003

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 56785
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/56785
ISSN: 0006-2960
PURE UUID: 9f21f64c-15e3-428c-86dd-a411f733a341

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Date deposited: 07 Aug 2008
Last modified: 13 Mar 2019 20:34

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