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Effects of climate on intra- and interspecific size variation in bumble-bees

Effects of climate on intra- and interspecific size variation in bumble-bees
Effects of climate on intra- and interspecific size variation in bumble-bees
1. In contrast to other social bees, bumble-bees exhibit considerable size variation within the worker caste. This size variation has not been adequately explained, although it is known that larger workers tend to be foragers and smaller bees spend more time in the nest. We quantify size variation and mean size for foragers of 22 bumble-bee species inhabiting climates ranging from arctic and montane to the lowland tropics.
2. Mean size was larger in bee species from cold climates compared with temperate bumble-bees. Within species, individuals from Scotland tended to be larger than those from southern England. However, tropical bumble-bees (mostly belonging to the subgenus Fervidobombus) were largest of all. We suggest that although a lower limit to size may be imposed by inhabiting cold climates, overheating does not constrain large size in bumble-bees from hot climates, perhaps because they have efficient mechanisms for heat loss through shunting heat to their extremities.
3. Tropical bees had shorter thoracic setae than species from cooler climates, while B. terrestris from Greece had shorter setae than those from southern UK. Presumably shorter setae enhance heat loss in warm climates.
4. Larger workers of B. terrestris were found to have smaller extremities, in proportion to their size, than small workers. We suggest that heat retention is more important in large bees that spend more of their time foraging, than in small bees which spend much of their time in the nest where incubation of the brood requires them to lose heat.
5. In the temperate climate of southern UK, we found no evidence for ambient temperature having a differential effect on activity of workers of B. terrestris according to their size. We suggest that, at least in temperate climates, size variation in bumble-bee foragers is probably not an adaptation to temperature variation. Instead it may improve colony foraging efficiency since foragers of different sizes are suited to, and tend to visit, different flower species.
bombus, hymenoptera, insulation, temperature, thermoregulation
0269-8463
145-151
Peat, J.
9816534b-cf32-4703-8873-7883489865f6
Darvill, B.
895d001c-c9ff-4d2e-97e7-6eccc9948e5c
Ellis, J.
2dd4cce8-c2ae-44cd-8bda-6d877e371c2a
Goulson, D.
edf7f1d7-7e58-40c3-88e8-81a43ca89efd
Peat, J.
9816534b-cf32-4703-8873-7883489865f6
Darvill, B.
895d001c-c9ff-4d2e-97e7-6eccc9948e5c
Ellis, J.
2dd4cce8-c2ae-44cd-8bda-6d877e371c2a
Goulson, D.
edf7f1d7-7e58-40c3-88e8-81a43ca89efd

Peat, J., Darvill, B., Ellis, J. and Goulson, D. (2005) Effects of climate on intra- and interspecific size variation in bumble-bees. Functional Ecology, 19 (1), 145-151. (doi:10.1111/j.0269-8463.2005.00946.x).

Record type: Article

Abstract

1. In contrast to other social bees, bumble-bees exhibit considerable size variation within the worker caste. This size variation has not been adequately explained, although it is known that larger workers tend to be foragers and smaller bees spend more time in the nest. We quantify size variation and mean size for foragers of 22 bumble-bee species inhabiting climates ranging from arctic and montane to the lowland tropics.
2. Mean size was larger in bee species from cold climates compared with temperate bumble-bees. Within species, individuals from Scotland tended to be larger than those from southern England. However, tropical bumble-bees (mostly belonging to the subgenus Fervidobombus) were largest of all. We suggest that although a lower limit to size may be imposed by inhabiting cold climates, overheating does not constrain large size in bumble-bees from hot climates, perhaps because they have efficient mechanisms for heat loss through shunting heat to their extremities.
3. Tropical bees had shorter thoracic setae than species from cooler climates, while B. terrestris from Greece had shorter setae than those from southern UK. Presumably shorter setae enhance heat loss in warm climates.
4. Larger workers of B. terrestris were found to have smaller extremities, in proportion to their size, than small workers. We suggest that heat retention is more important in large bees that spend more of their time foraging, than in small bees which spend much of their time in the nest where incubation of the brood requires them to lose heat.
5. In the temperate climate of southern UK, we found no evidence for ambient temperature having a differential effect on activity of workers of B. terrestris according to their size. We suggest that, at least in temperate climates, size variation in bumble-bee foragers is probably not an adaptation to temperature variation. Instead it may improve colony foraging efficiency since foragers of different sizes are suited to, and tend to visit, different flower species.

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More information

Submitted date: 23 July 2004
Published date: February 2005
Keywords: bombus, hymenoptera, insulation, temperature, thermoregulation

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 56903
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/56903
ISSN: 0269-8463
PURE UUID: 5adaa813-ffed-4879-9cd6-a6e9069b4e2e

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Date deposited: 11 Aug 2008
Last modified: 17 Jul 2017 14:30

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Contributors

Author: J. Peat
Author: B. Darvill
Author: J. Ellis
Author: D. Goulson

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