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Late relapse of metastatic testicular nonseminomatous germ cell cancer: surgery is needed for cure

Late relapse of metastatic testicular nonseminomatous germ cell cancer: surgery is needed for cure
Late relapse of metastatic testicular nonseminomatous germ cell cancer: surgery is needed for cure
Objective
To identify patients with late relapse of metastatic, nonseminomatous germ cell tumour (NSGCT) and to evaluate the patterns of relapse, treatment and outcome, as such relapse at > 2 years after complete remission to treatment for metastatic disease (late relapse) is uncommon, but with prolonged follow-up is becoming increasingly recognized.
Patients and Methods
Between 1980 and 2004, 1405 patients with testicular GCTs were identified who presented to Southampton University Hospital; 742 had NSGCTs or combined testicular GCTs, of whom 405 received primary chemotherapy for metastatic disease. In all, 329 (81%) patients achieved a complete response (CR) to initial treatment, with 101 of them (31%) requiring surgical resection of residual masses after chemotherapy. Any patient relapsing at > 2 years after a CR to initial treatment (late relapse) was assessed in detail.
Results
In all, 20 patients had a late relapse, 17 of whom received initial treatment locally and three of whom were initially treated elsewhere. Most (65%) late relapses were asymptomatic and detected by routine cross-sectional imaging or rising levels of tumour markers. Late relapse occurred at a median (range) of 108 (26-217) months (approximate to 9 years) after CR. Fifteen (75%) patients underwent only surgery for late relapse, including five who had invasive malignant germ cell cancer within the resected specimens. Fourteen of 15 surgically treated patients remained alive at a median of 44 (9-184) months from initial treatment for late relapse; one had died with progressive recurrent germ cell/epithelial malignancy. Five (25%) patients were initially treated with chemotherapy for late relapse; three of them died from progressive germ cell cancer and the two survivors both had surgical excision of residual abnormalities after salvage chemotherapy. Overall, 15 of 20 (75%) men remain alive with no evidence of disease; one further patient is currently undergoing salvage treatment for his third relapse.
Conclusions
Late relapse is uncommon after modern therapy for metastatic GCTs. Surgical treatment for localized disease, where possible, is associated with prolonged disease-free and overall survival. By contrast, chemotherapy is associated with a low response rate and a poor outcome.
surgical resection, follow-up, malignancies, outcome, salvage chemotherapy, abnormalities, cisplatin, medical-research-council, malignancy, cancer, cell, recurrent, tumors, paclitaxel, late relapse, bleomycin, survival, metastatic nonseminomatous germ cell cancer, vinblastine, men, therapy, high-dose chemotherapy, patterns, patient, disease, ifosfamide, treatment, time, surgery, late recurrence, chemotherapy, relapse
1464-4096
353-358
Geldart, Thomas R.
88885719-d7af-4d2b-bcdb-4f787ee17ecd
Gale, Joanna
103ddc41-a525-4c07-b054-e518cf2a85b2
McKendrick, Joe
5d105d42-a86b-46ad-93c6-1bea508edad5
Kirby, Julie
c9a0ce9a-78fe-410e-8228-295e036cd662
Mead, Graham
8db84dce-bda0-40c2-a9ea-6c51ee9f2a57
Geldart, Thomas R.
88885719-d7af-4d2b-bcdb-4f787ee17ecd
Gale, Joanna
103ddc41-a525-4c07-b054-e518cf2a85b2
McKendrick, Joe
5d105d42-a86b-46ad-93c6-1bea508edad5
Kirby, Julie
c9a0ce9a-78fe-410e-8228-295e036cd662
Mead, Graham
8db84dce-bda0-40c2-a9ea-6c51ee9f2a57

Geldart, Thomas R., Gale, Joanna, McKendrick, Joe, Kirby, Julie and Mead, Graham (2006) Late relapse of metastatic testicular nonseminomatous germ cell cancer: surgery is needed for cure. BJU International, 98 (2), 353-358. (doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2006.06250.x).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Objective
To identify patients with late relapse of metastatic, nonseminomatous germ cell tumour (NSGCT) and to evaluate the patterns of relapse, treatment and outcome, as such relapse at > 2 years after complete remission to treatment for metastatic disease (late relapse) is uncommon, but with prolonged follow-up is becoming increasingly recognized.
Patients and Methods
Between 1980 and 2004, 1405 patients with testicular GCTs were identified who presented to Southampton University Hospital; 742 had NSGCTs or combined testicular GCTs, of whom 405 received primary chemotherapy for metastatic disease. In all, 329 (81%) patients achieved a complete response (CR) to initial treatment, with 101 of them (31%) requiring surgical resection of residual masses after chemotherapy. Any patient relapsing at > 2 years after a CR to initial treatment (late relapse) was assessed in detail.
Results
In all, 20 patients had a late relapse, 17 of whom received initial treatment locally and three of whom were initially treated elsewhere. Most (65%) late relapses were asymptomatic and detected by routine cross-sectional imaging or rising levels of tumour markers. Late relapse occurred at a median (range) of 108 (26-217) months (approximate to 9 years) after CR. Fifteen (75%) patients underwent only surgery for late relapse, including five who had invasive malignant germ cell cancer within the resected specimens. Fourteen of 15 surgically treated patients remained alive at a median of 44 (9-184) months from initial treatment for late relapse; one had died with progressive recurrent germ cell/epithelial malignancy. Five (25%) patients were initially treated with chemotherapy for late relapse; three of them died from progressive germ cell cancer and the two survivors both had surgical excision of residual abnormalities after salvage chemotherapy. Overall, 15 of 20 (75%) men remain alive with no evidence of disease; one further patient is currently undergoing salvage treatment for his third relapse.
Conclusions
Late relapse is uncommon after modern therapy for metastatic GCTs. Surgical treatment for localized disease, where possible, is associated with prolonged disease-free and overall survival. By contrast, chemotherapy is associated with a low response rate and a poor outcome.

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More information

Published date: August 2006
Keywords: surgical resection, follow-up, malignancies, outcome, salvage chemotherapy, abnormalities, cisplatin, medical-research-council, malignancy, cancer, cell, recurrent, tumors, paclitaxel, late relapse, bleomycin, survival, metastatic nonseminomatous germ cell cancer, vinblastine, men, therapy, high-dose chemotherapy, patterns, patient, disease, ifosfamide, treatment, time, surgery, late recurrence, chemotherapy, relapse

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 62749
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/62749
ISSN: 1464-4096
PURE UUID: 321b47af-17c0-469c-b79c-2fc5a30d0cff

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Date deposited: 12 Sep 2008
Last modified: 13 Mar 2019 20:27

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