The University of Southampton
University of Southampton Institutional Repository

The dopamine receptor D4 7-repeat allele and prenatal smoking in ADHD-affected children and their unaffected siblings: no gene–environment interaction

Altink, Marieke E., Arias-Vásquez, Alejandro, Franke, Barbara, Slaats-Willemse, Dorine I.E., Buschgens, Cathelijne J.M., Rommelse, Nanda N.J., Fliers, Ellen A., Anney, Richard, Brookes, Keeley-Joanne, Chen, Wai, Gill, Michael, Mulligan, Aisling, Sonuga-Barke, Edmund, Thompson, Margaret, Sergeant, Joseph A., Faraone, Stephen V., Asherson, Philip and Buitelaar, Jan K. (2008) The dopamine receptor D4 7-repeat allele and prenatal smoking in ADHD-affected children and their unaffected siblings: no gene–environment interaction Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, (10), pp. 1053-1060. (doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.01998.x).

Record type: Article


Background: The dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) 7-repeat allele and maternal smoking during pregnancy are both considered as risk factors in the aetiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but few studies have been conducted on their interactive effects in causing ADHD. The purpose of this study is to examine the gene by environment (G×E) interaction of the DRD4 7-repeat allele and smoking during pregnancy on ADHD and oppositional behavior in families from the International Multicenter ADHD Genetics project; and further, to test the hypothesis that the direction of effect of the DRD4 7-repeat allele differs between ADHD affected and unaffected children.
Methods: Linear mixed models were used to assess main and interactive effects of the DRD4 7-repeat allele and smoking during pregnancy in 539 ADHD-affected children and their 407 unaffected siblings, aged 6–17 years.
Results: There was some evidence pointing to differential effects of the DRD4 7-repeat allele on ADHD and oppositional symptoms in the affected (fewer symptoms) and unaffected children (increasing ADHD symptoms of teacher ratings). Affected children were more often exposed to prenatal smoking than unaffected children. There were limited main effects of prenatal smoking on severity of symptoms. Given the number of tests performed, no indication was found for G×E interactions.
Conclusion: Despite the large sample size, no G×E interactions were found. The impact of the DRD4 7-repeat allele might differ, depending on affected status and rater. This finding is discussed in terms of differences in the activity of the dopaminergic system and of different genes involved in rater-specific behaviors.

Full text not available from this repository.

More information

Published date: October 2008
Keywords: dopamine receptor d4 gene, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (adhd), maternal smoking during pregnancy, gene by environment interaction


Local EPrints ID: 63813
ISSN: 0021-9630
PURE UUID: abc19e65-559f-490f-b04b-9292292d8b54

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 05 Nov 2008
Last modified: 17 Jul 2017 14:15

Export record



Author: Marieke E. Altink
Author: Alejandro Arias-Vásquez
Author: Barbara Franke
Author: Dorine I.E. Slaats-Willemse
Author: Cathelijne J.M. Buschgens
Author: Nanda N.J. Rommelse
Author: Ellen A. Fliers
Author: Richard Anney
Author: Keeley-Joanne Brookes
Author: Wai Chen
Author: Michael Gill
Author: Aisling Mulligan
Author: Edmund Sonuga-Barke
Author: Margaret Thompson
Author: Joseph A. Sergeant
Author: Stephen V. Faraone
Author: Philip Asherson
Author: Jan K. Buitelaar

University divisions

Download statistics

Downloads from ePrints over the past year. Other digital versions may also be available to download e.g. from the publisher's website.

View more statistics

Atom RSS 1.0 RSS 2.0

Contact ePrints Soton:

ePrints Soton supports OAI 2.0 with a base URL of

This repository has been built using EPrints software, developed at the University of Southampton, but available to everyone to use.

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you continue without changing your settings, we will assume that you are happy to receive cookies on the University of Southampton website.