TWODEE-2: a shallow layer model for dense gas dispersion on complex topography

Folch, A., Costa, A. and Hankin, R.K.S. (2009) TWODEE-2: a shallow layer model for dense gas dispersion on complex topography Computers & Geosciences, 35, (3), pp. 667-674. (doi:10.1016/j.cageo.2007.12.017).


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TWODEE-2 is a Fortran 90 code based on previous code (TWODEE). It is designed to solve the shallow water equations for fluid depth, depth-averaged horizontal velocities and depth-averaged fluid density. The shallow layer approach used by twodee-2 is a compromise between the complexity of CFD models and the simpler integral models. It can be used for forecasting gas dispersion near the ground and/or for hazard assessment over complex terrains. The inputs to the model are topography, terrain roughness, wind measurements from meteorological stations and gas flow rate from the ground sources. Optionally the model can be coupled with the output of a meteorological processor which generates a zero-divergence wind field incorporating terrain effects. Model outputs are gas concentration, depth-averaged velocity, averaged cloud thickness and dose. The model can be a useful tool for gas hazard assessment by evaluating where and when lethal concentrations for humans and animals can be reached.

Item Type: Article
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi:10.1016/j.cageo.2007.12.017
ISSNs: 0098-3004 (print)
Keywords: Dense gas transport, Fortran code, Gas hazard, Computational model
ePrint ID: 64012
Date :
Date Event
March 2009Published
Date Deposited: 24 Nov 2008
Last Modified: 16 Apr 2017 17:21
Further Information:Google Scholar

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