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Delay Aversion in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: an empirical investigation of the broader phenotype

Delay Aversion in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: an empirical investigation of the broader phenotype
Delay Aversion in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: an empirical investigation of the broader phenotype
Background Delay-related motivational processes are impaired in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Here we explore the impact of ADHD on the performance of three putative indices of Delay Aversion (DAv): (i) the choice for immediate over delayed reward; (ii) slower reaction times following delay; and (iii) increased delay-related frustration—to see whether these tap into a common DAv construct that differentiates ADHD cases from controls and shows evidence of familiality.
Method Seventy seven male and female individuals (age range 6–17) with a research diagnosis combined type ADHD, 65 of their siblings unaffected by ADHD and 50 non-ADHD controls completed three delay tasks.
Results As predicted the size of the correlation between tasks was small but a common latent component was apparent. Children with ADHD differed from controls on all tasks (d = .4–.7) and on an overall DAv index (d = .9): The battery as a whole demonstrated moderate sensitivity and specificity. In general, deficits were equally marked in childhood and adolescence and were independent of comorbid ODD. IQ moderated the effect on the MIDA. Scores on the DAv factor co-segregated within ADHD families.
Discussion There is value in exploring the broader DAv phenotype in ADHD. The results illustrate the power of multivariate approaches to endophenotypes. By highlighting the significant, but limited, role of DAv in ADHD these results are consistent with recent accounts that emphasize neuropsychological heterogeneity.
delay aversion, endophenotypes, heterogeneity, iq, oppositional defiant disorder (odd)
0028-3932
446-456
Bitsakou, Paraskevi
68ff8113-a215-4cee-9897-a047acdc65e8
Psychogiou, Lamprini
45601287-f815-4123-a7f6-3975f2612296
Thompson, Margaret
bfe8522c-b252-4771-8036-744e93357c67
Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.S.
bc80bf95-6cf9-4c76-a09d-eaaf0b717635
Bitsakou, Paraskevi
68ff8113-a215-4cee-9897-a047acdc65e8
Psychogiou, Lamprini
45601287-f815-4123-a7f6-3975f2612296
Thompson, Margaret
bfe8522c-b252-4771-8036-744e93357c67
Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.S.
bc80bf95-6cf9-4c76-a09d-eaaf0b717635

Bitsakou, Paraskevi, Psychogiou, Lamprini, Thompson, Margaret and Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.S. (2009) Delay Aversion in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: an empirical investigation of the broader phenotype. Neuropsychologia, 47 (2), 446-456. (doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2008.09.015).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Background Delay-related motivational processes are impaired in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Here we explore the impact of ADHD on the performance of three putative indices of Delay Aversion (DAv): (i) the choice for immediate over delayed reward; (ii) slower reaction times following delay; and (iii) increased delay-related frustration—to see whether these tap into a common DAv construct that differentiates ADHD cases from controls and shows evidence of familiality.
Method Seventy seven male and female individuals (age range 6–17) with a research diagnosis combined type ADHD, 65 of their siblings unaffected by ADHD and 50 non-ADHD controls completed three delay tasks.
Results As predicted the size of the correlation between tasks was small but a common latent component was apparent. Children with ADHD differed from controls on all tasks (d = .4–.7) and on an overall DAv index (d = .9): The battery as a whole demonstrated moderate sensitivity and specificity. In general, deficits were equally marked in childhood and adolescence and were independent of comorbid ODD. IQ moderated the effect on the MIDA. Scores on the DAv factor co-segregated within ADHD families.
Discussion There is value in exploring the broader DAv phenotype in ADHD. The results illustrate the power of multivariate approaches to endophenotypes. By highlighting the significant, but limited, role of DAv in ADHD these results are consistent with recent accounts that emphasize neuropsychological heterogeneity.

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Published date: January 2009
Keywords: delay aversion, endophenotypes, heterogeneity, iq, oppositional defiant disorder (odd)

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Local EPrints ID: 65396
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/65396
ISSN: 0028-3932
PURE UUID: 8f107579-fbd1-41ad-a861-88b43f7df951

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Date deposited: 09 Feb 2009
Last modified: 19 Jul 2017 00:34

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Author: Paraskevi Bitsakou
Author: Lamprini Psychogiou
Author: Margaret Thompson
Author: Edmund J.S. Sonuga-Barke

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