The University of Southampton
University of Southampton Institutional Repository

Individual differences in self-enhancement and self-protection strategies: an integrative analysis

Hepper, Erica G., Gramzow, Richard H. and Sedikides, Constantine (2010) Individual differences in self-enhancement and self-protection strategies: an integrative analysis Journal of Personality, 78, pp. 781-814.

Record type: Article


Research has identified a large number of strategies that people use to self-enhance or self-protect. We aimed for an empirical integration of these strategies. Two studies used self-report items to assess all commonly recognized self-enhancement or self-protection strategies. In Study 1 (N = 345), exploratory factor analysis identified four reliable factors. In Study 2 (N = 416), this model was validated using confirmatory factor analysis. The factors related differentially to the key personality variables of regulatory focus, self-esteem, and narcissism. Expanding this integrative approach in the future can reveal a great deal about the structure and dynamics of self-enhancement and self-protection motivation.

PDF Hepper_Gramzow_Sedikides_Strategies_in_press.pdf - Author's Original
Restricted to Repository staff only
Download (223kB)
PDF Hepper_Gramzow_Sedikides_2010_JP.pdf - Accepted Manuscript
Restricted to Repository staff only
Download (209kB)
PDF Hepper_Gramzow_Sedikides_2010_Self-Enhancement_and_Protection_Strategies_PREPRINT.pdf - Other
Download (222kB)

More information

Accepted/In Press date: March 2009
Published date: March 2010
Keywords: self-enhancement, self-protection, regulatory focus, self-esteem, narcissism


Local EPrints ID: 66744
ISSN: 0022-3506
PURE UUID: 9d2cd931-3cf0-49db-951e-4c3d24992f82

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 15 Jul 2009
Last modified: 30 Aug 2017 08:29

Export record


Author: Erica G. Hepper
Author: Richard H. Gramzow

University divisions

Download statistics

Downloads from ePrints over the past year. Other digital versions may also be available to download e.g. from the publisher's website.

View more statistics

Atom RSS 1.0 RSS 2.0

Contact ePrints Soton:

ePrints Soton supports OAI 2.0 with a base URL of

This repository has been built using EPrints software, developed at the University of Southampton, but available to everyone to use.

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you continue without changing your settings, we will assume that you are happy to receive cookies on the University of Southampton website.