The University of Southampton
University of Southampton Institutional Repository

Fetal superior mesenteric artery: longitudinal reference ranges and evidence of regulatory link to portal liver circulation

Ebbing, Catherine, Rasmussen, Svein, Godfrey, Keith M., Hanson, Mark A. and Kiserud, Torvid (2009) Fetal superior mesenteric artery: longitudinal reference ranges and evidence of regulatory link to portal liver circulation Early Human Development, 85, (4), pp. 207-213.

Record type: Article


Objective: To establish longitudinal reference ranges for the fetal superior mesenteric artery (SMA) flow velocity and pulsatility index (PISMA). Also to examine the hemodynamic relationship to venous liver perfusion and umbilical flow distribution in the liver, to other splanchnic arteries, and more generally to the middle cerebral and umbilical artery. Methods: Prospective longitudinal study of 161 low-risk pregnancies using Doppler recordings including the SMA, repeated on 3–5 occasions at 3–5 weekly intervals. Umbilical venous flow was estimated, blood velocity in the shunt ductus venosus represented umbilico-caval (i.e. porto-caval) pressure gradient, and left portal vein blood velocity represented umbilical distribution within the liver. The correlation between PISMA and the splenic and hepatic artery PI were analysed (PISA and PIHA), and the association to middle cerebral and umbilical artery PI (PIMCA and PIUA) assessed. Results: Reference ranges for the SMA for gestational weeks 21–39 were based on 589 observations. Low impedance in the SMA (i.e. low PISMA) was associated with low umbilical flow and porto-caval pressure gradient (i.e. b10th centile), and high distribution of umbilical flow to the right lobe (i.e. left portal vein blood velocity N90th centile). PISMA correlated weakly with PISA and PIHA (r=0.30, 95%CI 0.22–0.37, and r=0.39, 95% CI 0.27–0.51, respectively). PISMA was positively associated with PIMCA and PIUA. Conclusion: We have provided longitudinal reference ranges for fetal SMA flow velocity and PI, and shown that the SMA, which perfuses the fetal gut, is also involved in the regulation of the liver perfusion.

Full text not available from this repository.

More information

Published date: April 2009
Keywords: superior mesenteric artery, doppler, fetus, reference ranges, hemodynamics


Local EPrints ID: 68887
ISSN: 0378-3782
PURE UUID: 7a437dc3-e834-4d63-ba87-cf3369f5bcc4
ORCID for Keith M. Godfrey: ORCID iD

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 08 Oct 2009
Last modified: 29 Aug 2017 03:12

Export record


Author: Catherine Ebbing
Author: Svein Rasmussen
Author: Mark A. Hanson
Author: Torvid Kiserud

University divisions

Download statistics

Downloads from ePrints over the past year. Other digital versions may also be available to download e.g. from the publisher's website.

View more statistics

Atom RSS 1.0 RSS 2.0

Contact ePrints Soton:

ePrints Soton supports OAI 2.0 with a base URL of

This repository has been built using EPrints software, developed at the University of Southampton, but available to everyone to use.

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you continue without changing your settings, we will assume that you are happy to receive cookies on the University of Southampton website.