The University of Southampton
University of Southampton Institutional Repository

Analysis of dissolved metal fractions in coastal waters: An inter-comparison of five voltammetric in situ profiling (VIP) systems

Braungardt, Charlotte B., Achterberg, Eric P., Axelsson, Bertil, Buffle, Jacques, Graziottin, Flavio, Howell, Kate A., Illuminati, Silvia, Scarponi, Giuseppe, Tappin, Alan D., Tercier-Waeber, Marie-Lou and Turner, David (2009) Analysis of dissolved metal fractions in coastal waters: An inter-comparison of five voltammetric in situ profiling (VIP) systems Marine Chemistry, 114, (1-2), pp. 47-55. (doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2009.03.006).

Record type: Article


This paper presents the results of an inter-comparison exercise undertaken to test the reliability and performance of a voltammetric in situ profiling system (VIP system) and carried out by partners based in Italy, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK. The VIP system was designed to allow in situ simultaneous monitoring of the dynamic fractions (i.e. the maximum potentially bioavailable fractions) of Cu(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II) in natural waters at a frequency of 2–3 analyses h? 1.

The four participating groups used the VIP systems under laboratory conditions to determine dissolved concentrations of Cu, Pb and Cd in river, estuarine and coastal water reference materials (SLRS-3/4, SLEW-2/3 and CASS3/4, respectively). The accuracy of the VIP method was comparable to that of established methodologies, including inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and voltammetric methods using mercury-electrodes. The VIP systems were also applied to determine the dynamic fractions of the target analytes in freshly collected samples ex situ, as well as in situ in contrasting European marine waters. There was good agreement between the concentrations of the dynamic metal fractions determined in laboratory analyses, and observed during the simultaneous deployment of up to five VIP instruments for periods of several hours in coastal waters. The simultaneous in situ deployment of two VIP instruments in an estuary showed a consistent analytical performance over several days of continuous operation. The results of this inter-comparison exercise show that the VIP system is a reliable submersible probe for accurate, sensitive and high resolution in situ monitoring of dissolved metal fractions in the picomolar (Cd, Pb) and nanomolar (Cu) concentration ranges.

Full text not available from this repository.

More information

Published date: 20 April 2009
Keywords: Trace metals, Metal speciation, In situ measurements, Microsensor, Voltammetry, Speciation, Coastal waters, Intercomparison


Local EPrints ID: 69122
ISSN: 0304-4203
PURE UUID: 8421f380-65aa-4a28-bcc2-6f640da91d28

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 19 Oct 2009
Last modified: 19 Jul 2017 00:13

Export record



Author: Charlotte B. Braungardt
Author: Bertil Axelsson
Author: Jacques Buffle
Author: Flavio Graziottin
Author: Kate A. Howell
Author: Silvia Illuminati
Author: Giuseppe Scarponi
Author: Alan D. Tappin
Author: Marie-Lou Tercier-Waeber
Author: David Turner

University divisions

Download statistics

Downloads from ePrints over the past year. Other digital versions may also be available to download e.g. from the publisher's website.

View more statistics

Atom RSS 1.0 RSS 2.0

Contact ePrints Soton:

ePrints Soton supports OAI 2.0 with a base URL of

This repository has been built using EPrints software, developed at the University of Southampton, but available to everyone to use.

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you continue without changing your settings, we will assume that you are happy to receive cookies on the University of Southampton website.