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Size at birth, weight gain in infancy and childhood, and adult blood pressure in 5 low- and middle-income-country cohorts: when does weight gain matter?

Record type: Article

Background: Promoting catch-up growth in malnourished children has health benefits, but recent evidence suggests that accelerated child weight gain increases adult chronic disease risk.
Objective: We aimed to determine how birth weight (BW) and weight gain to midchildhood relate to blood pressure (BP) in young adults.
Design: We pooled data from birth cohorts in Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa. We used conditional weight (CW), a residual of current weight regressed on prior weights, to represent deviations from expected weight gain from 0 to 12, 12 to 24, 24 to 48 mo, and 48 mo to adulthood. Adult BP and risk of prehypertension or hypertension (P/HTN) were modeled before and after adjustment for adult body mass index (BMI) and height. Interactions of CWs with small size-for-gestational age (SGA) at birth were tested.
Results: Higher CWs were associated with increased BP and odds of P/HTN, with coefficients proportional to the contribution of each CW to adult BMI. Adjusted for adult height and BMI, no child CW was associated with adult BP, but 1 SD of BW was related to a 0.5-mm Hg lower systolic BP and a 9% lower odds of P/HTN. BW and CW associations with systolic BP and P/HTN were not different between adults born SGA and those with normal BW, but higher CW at 48 mo was associated with higher diastolic BP in those born SGA.
Conclusions: Greater weight gain at any age relates to elevated adult BP, but faster weight gains in infancy and young childhood do not pose a higher risk than do gains at other ages.

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Citation

Adair, Linda S., Martorell, Reynaldo, Stein, Aryeh D., Hallal, Pedro C., Sachdev, Harshpal S., Prabhakaran, Dorairaj, Wills, Andrew, Norris, Shane A., Dahly, Darren L., Lee, Nanette R. and Victora, Cesar G. (2009) Size at birth, weight gain in infancy and childhood, and adult blood pressure in 5 low- and middle-income-country cohorts: when does weight gain matter? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 89, (5), pp. 1383-1392. (doi:10.3945/ajcn.2008.27139).

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Published date: May 2009

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 69782
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/69782
ISSN: 0002-9165
PURE UUID: df0ecd6f-e051-408a-a0d4-42cdaef57a60

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Date deposited: 03 Dec 2009
Last modified: 19 Jul 2017 00:06

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Contributors

Author: Linda S. Adair
Author: Reynaldo Martorell
Author: Aryeh D. Stein
Author: Pedro C. Hallal
Author: Harshpal S. Sachdev
Author: Dorairaj Prabhakaran
Author: Andrew Wills
Author: Shane A. Norris
Author: Darren L. Dahly
Author: Nanette R. Lee
Author: Cesar G. Victora

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