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Milk feeding and dietary patterns predict weight and fat gains in infancy

Milk feeding and dietary patterns predict weight and fat gains in infancy
Milk feeding and dietary patterns predict weight and fat gains in infancy
Current guidelines recommend that infants are exclusively breast fed for the first 6 months of life, with particular solid foods being gradually introduced from 6 months. Our objective was to compare the growth of infants whose feeding most closely followed current guidelines with the growth of infants with other feeding practices. Participants were 1740 infants in a prospective cohort study in Southampton, UK. At 6 and 12 months, infants' milk feeding was recorded, diets assessed using food frequency questionnaires (FFQ), and anthropometry performed. Principal components analysis was used to identify patterns of foods in the diet using the food intakes assessed by the FFQs. Two patterns ('infant guidelines' and 'adult foods') explained most variance in infant diet at 6 and 12 months of age. The main outcomes were conditional growth in weight, length and skinfold thickness from 0-6 and 6-12 months. Infants who were breast fed from 0-6 months gained weight, length and adiposity more slowly than formula-fed infants, independent of age at introduction of solids and maternal factors: compared with infants who were breast fed from 0-6 months, formula-fed infants gained 0.21 standard deviation scores (SDS) in weight [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.00, 0.42]. Infants whose dietary pattern was most similar to current feeding guidelines, with high frequencies of fresh fruit and vegetables, home-prepared foods and breast milk, gained weight and skinfold thickness more rapidly from 6 to 12 months than other infants, independent of milk feeding, age at introduction of solids and maternal factors. Compared with infants in the lowest quarter, infants in the highest 'infant guidelines' score quarter gained 0.24 SDS [95% CI 0.06, 0.43] in weight and 0.26 SDS [95% CI 0.07, 0.45] in skinfold thickness. Conversely, infants whose diets had the highest frequencies of breads and processed foods gained weight less rapidly from 6 to 12 months than other infants. The extent to which the patterns of diet and growth we have described will influence the current or later health of infants is unknown. We are following up the infants in this study to assess the impact of these patterns beyond the first year of life. These associations should also be examined in other settings and populations.
diet, adult, skinfold thickness, patterns, birth cohort, cohort studies, infant growth, outcomes, breast-milk, england, conformity to dietary guidelines, size, weight, child, infant, health, cohort, food frequency questionnaires, life, breast feeding, maternal, obesity, questionnaires, growth, risk, childhood, dietary patterns, guidelines, milk, analysis
0269-5022
575-586
Baird, Janis
f4bf2039-6118-436f-ab69-df8b4d17f824
Poole, Jason
88c69acd-8ff1-4d82-bd3d-8ea1720557e1
Robinson, Sian
ba591c98-4380-456a-be8a-c452f992b69b
Marriott, Lynne
f02a8079-a7d3-4217-9c10-24a65e53d17c
Godfrey, Keith
0931701e-fe2c-44b5-8f0d-ec5c7477a6fd
Cooper, Cyrus
e05f5612-b493-4273-9b71-9e0ce32bdad6
Inskip, Hazel
5fb4470a-9379-49b2-a533-9da8e61058b7
Law, Catherine
b90db04a-7a74-4211-8409-5aad234bca91
Baird, Janis
f4bf2039-6118-436f-ab69-df8b4d17f824
Poole, Jason
88c69acd-8ff1-4d82-bd3d-8ea1720557e1
Robinson, Sian
ba591c98-4380-456a-be8a-c452f992b69b
Marriott, Lynne
f02a8079-a7d3-4217-9c10-24a65e53d17c
Godfrey, Keith
0931701e-fe2c-44b5-8f0d-ec5c7477a6fd
Cooper, Cyrus
e05f5612-b493-4273-9b71-9e0ce32bdad6
Inskip, Hazel
5fb4470a-9379-49b2-a533-9da8e61058b7
Law, Catherine
b90db04a-7a74-4211-8409-5aad234bca91

Baird, Janis, Poole, Jason, Robinson, Sian, Marriott, Lynne, Godfrey, Keith, Cooper, Cyrus, Inskip, Hazel and Law, Catherine (2008) Milk feeding and dietary patterns predict weight and fat gains in infancy. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 22 (6), 575-586. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-3016.2008.00963.x). (PMID:19000296)

Record type: Article

Abstract

Current guidelines recommend that infants are exclusively breast fed for the first 6 months of life, with particular solid foods being gradually introduced from 6 months. Our objective was to compare the growth of infants whose feeding most closely followed current guidelines with the growth of infants with other feeding practices. Participants were 1740 infants in a prospective cohort study in Southampton, UK. At 6 and 12 months, infants' milk feeding was recorded, diets assessed using food frequency questionnaires (FFQ), and anthropometry performed. Principal components analysis was used to identify patterns of foods in the diet using the food intakes assessed by the FFQs. Two patterns ('infant guidelines' and 'adult foods') explained most variance in infant diet at 6 and 12 months of age. The main outcomes were conditional growth in weight, length and skinfold thickness from 0-6 and 6-12 months. Infants who were breast fed from 0-6 months gained weight, length and adiposity more slowly than formula-fed infants, independent of age at introduction of solids and maternal factors: compared with infants who were breast fed from 0-6 months, formula-fed infants gained 0.21 standard deviation scores (SDS) in weight [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.00, 0.42]. Infants whose dietary pattern was most similar to current feeding guidelines, with high frequencies of fresh fruit and vegetables, home-prepared foods and breast milk, gained weight and skinfold thickness more rapidly from 6 to 12 months than other infants, independent of milk feeding, age at introduction of solids and maternal factors. Compared with infants in the lowest quarter, infants in the highest 'infant guidelines' score quarter gained 0.24 SDS [95% CI 0.06, 0.43] in weight and 0.26 SDS [95% CI 0.07, 0.45] in skinfold thickness. Conversely, infants whose diets had the highest frequencies of breads and processed foods gained weight less rapidly from 6 to 12 months than other infants. The extent to which the patterns of diet and growth we have described will influence the current or later health of infants is unknown. We are following up the infants in this study to assess the impact of these patterns beyond the first year of life. These associations should also be examined in other settings and populations.

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More information

e-pub ahead of print date: 20 August 2008
Published date: November 2008
Keywords: diet, adult, skinfold thickness, patterns, birth cohort, cohort studies, infant growth, outcomes, breast-milk, england, conformity to dietary guidelines, size, weight, child, infant, health, cohort, food frequency questionnaires, life, breast feeding, maternal, obesity, questionnaires, growth, risk, childhood, dietary patterns, guidelines, milk, analysis

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 70275
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/70275
ISSN: 0269-5022
PURE UUID: f48921da-ecac-47db-983a-a4c51ae5b08d
ORCID for Janis Baird: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-4039-4361
ORCID for Sian Robinson: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-1766-7269
ORCID for Keith Godfrey: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-4643-0618
ORCID for Cyrus Cooper: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-3510-0709
ORCID for Hazel Inskip: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-8897-1749

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Date deposited: 10 Mar 2010
Last modified: 05 Nov 2019 02:08

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Contributors

Author: Janis Baird ORCID iD
Author: Jason Poole
Author: Sian Robinson ORCID iD
Author: Lynne Marriott
Author: Keith Godfrey ORCID iD
Author: Cyrus Cooper ORCID iD
Author: Hazel Inskip ORCID iD
Author: Catherine Law

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