Rolighed Thomsen, Trine, Hall-Stoodley, Luanne, Stoodley, Paul and Moser, Claus
The role of bacterial biofilms in infections of catheters and shunts
Bjarnsholt, Thomas, Jensen, Peter Østrup, Moser, Claus and Niels, Høiby (eds.)
New York, USA,
Full text not available from this repository.
Catheters and shunts are tubes which are used to manage the flow of fluids into, within, and out of the body. Intravascular (IV) catheters deliver fluids and medications directly into the bloodstream, while urinary catheters drain waste fluids. In some cases devices such as cerebral ventricular shunts drain fluid from the brain, to another part of the body, such as the heart or stomach where the fluids are processed internally. There are numerous indications for catheter use in a wide variety of anatomic sites and for treating many chronic diseases. Urinary or IV catheters might be placed for a few hours for patient management during a surgical procedure, radiological scan during a surgical procedure, or during an imaging examination. Some catheters may have an anticipated lifetime of months or years in certain patients. Catheters can be transcutaneous, where by definition, they breach the protective skin barrier (i.e. IV catheters and external ventricular drains), be inserted into natural orifices (i.e. urinary and nasogastric catheters) or be completely indwelling (i.e. cerebral ventricular shunts). In the broadest sense, endotracheal tubes and ear tubes might be considered catheters since they are tubes designed to facilitate the transport of fluids (air or liquid) into and out of the body. Some of the more common catheters are listed in Table 1. In addition to catheters, stents and cannulae are also often used for the transport of fluids into and out of the body. A stent is a 'tube' inserted into a vessel or other conduit in the body to prevent or treat stenosis, or constriction e.g. of a vessel, esophagus or ductus choledocus.
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