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Generalised anxiety and major depressive disorders, their comorbidity and hypertension in middle-aged men

Generalised anxiety and major depressive disorders, their comorbidity and hypertension in middle-aged men
Generalised anxiety and major depressive disorders, their comorbidity and hypertension in middle-aged men
Objective: to examine the cross-sectional associations between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), their comorbidity, and hypertension.
Methods: participants (n = 4180) were drawn from a cohort of men who were members of the U.S. army during the Vietnam war era. Occupational, sociodemographic, and health data were collected from military service files, telephone interviews, and medical examinations. Hypertension status was defined by the presence of one of the following: self-reports at interview of either a physician-diagnosis or taking antihypertensive medication; or an average systolic blood pressure ?140 mm Hg or an average diastolic blood pressure ?90 mm Hg at the medical examination. One-year prevalence of GAD and MDD was determined, using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition criteria.
Results: in separate regression models adjusting for age and then additionally for place of service, ethnicity, marital status, alcohol consumption, smoking, body mass index, household income, and education grade, both GAD and MDD were related positively to hypertension. In age-adjusted and fully adjusted models comparing comorbid GAD/MDD, GAD alone, MDD alone, and neither condition, comorbidity showed the strongest relationship with hypertension.
Conclusion: depression has been the main focus for research on mental health and physical health outcomes. The present results suggest that future research should pay equal attention to GAD and, in particular, the comorbidity of GAD and MDD
generalized anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder, comorbidity, hypertension, veterans
0033-3174
16-19
Carroll, Douglas
713a28c3-4e36-4dd8-aabe-1b5e93de8045
Phillips, Anna C.
d007c34d-e3b8-4a33-9608-841383e54e47
Gale, Catharine R.
5bb2abb3-7b53-42d6-8aa7-817e193140c8
Batty, G. David
605ce199-493d-4238-b9c8-a2c076672e83
Carroll, Douglas
713a28c3-4e36-4dd8-aabe-1b5e93de8045
Phillips, Anna C.
d007c34d-e3b8-4a33-9608-841383e54e47
Gale, Catharine R.
5bb2abb3-7b53-42d6-8aa7-817e193140c8
Batty, G. David
605ce199-493d-4238-b9c8-a2c076672e83

Carroll, Douglas, Phillips, Anna C., Gale, Catharine R. and Batty, G. David (2010) Generalised anxiety and major depressive disorders, their comorbidity and hypertension in middle-aged men. Psychosomatic Medicine, 72 (1), 16-19. (doi:10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181c4fca1). (Submitted)

Record type: Article

Abstract

Objective: to examine the cross-sectional associations between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), their comorbidity, and hypertension.
Methods: participants (n = 4180) were drawn from a cohort of men who were members of the U.S. army during the Vietnam war era. Occupational, sociodemographic, and health data were collected from military service files, telephone interviews, and medical examinations. Hypertension status was defined by the presence of one of the following: self-reports at interview of either a physician-diagnosis or taking antihypertensive medication; or an average systolic blood pressure ?140 mm Hg or an average diastolic blood pressure ?90 mm Hg at the medical examination. One-year prevalence of GAD and MDD was determined, using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition criteria.
Results: in separate regression models adjusting for age and then additionally for place of service, ethnicity, marital status, alcohol consumption, smoking, body mass index, household income, and education grade, both GAD and MDD were related positively to hypertension. In age-adjusted and fully adjusted models comparing comorbid GAD/MDD, GAD alone, MDD alone, and neither condition, comorbidity showed the strongest relationship with hypertension.
Conclusion: depression has been the main focus for research on mental health and physical health outcomes. The present results suggest that future research should pay equal attention to GAD and, in particular, the comorbidity of GAD and MDD

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More information

Submitted date: January 2010
Keywords: generalized anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder, comorbidity, hypertension, veterans

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 72100
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/72100
ISSN: 0033-3174
PURE UUID: fb811944-b192-4b3d-80be-f4b4c0c0c2e6
ORCID for Catharine R. Gale: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-3361-8638

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Date deposited: 21 Jan 2010
Last modified: 06 Feb 2019 01:37

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Contributors

Author: Douglas Carroll
Author: Anna C. Phillips
Author: G. David Batty

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