Secondary batteries - zinc systems: zinc-bromine
Ponce de Leon, C and Walsh, F.C. (2009) Secondary batteries - zinc systems: zinc-bromine In, Dyer, Chris, Garche, Juergen, Moseley, Patrick, Ogumi, Zempachi, Rand, David and Scrosati, Bruno (eds.) Encyclopedia of Electrochemical Power Sources. Amsterdam, NL, Elsevier pp. 487-496. (doi:10.1016/B978-044452745-5.00856-X).
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The zinc bromine (Zn–Br2) redox battery has been extensively investigated for energy storage. It has a high theoretical specific energy (?440 Wh kg?1) and a relatively high energy efficiency (<80%). A concise profile of advances in the Zn–Br2 redox storage battery is presented, including information on cathode materials, membranes, and electrolyte compositions. The main advantages and disadvantages of the Zn–Br2 battery are considered while challenges requiring further development are highlighted.
|Item Type:||Book Section|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||doi:10.1016/B978-044452745-5.00856-X|
|Additional Information:||Modular technologies such as the Zn–Br2 RFB offer the capability of high-power energy storage for long periods of time and excellent response time with full power reached within seconds. At the electricity generation level, energy storage can be used to increase the load factor of a base load reducing the need to dispatch inefficient power plant as well as offering benefits such as meeting load increases and providing operating and contingency reserve. Electricity transmission companies should be able to increase the load factor of their transmission lines and other assets, whereas distribution companies can use energy storage to replace or defer investment in generating electrical network. Hence, there is a significant potential market for energy storage products in the range of several hundred megawatts and several hours storage down to the multimegawatt level that may be difficult to satisfy in the near future by existing technology. Other future markets will combine renewable sources of energy, such as wind power and photovoltaic energy generation systems, with redox flow batteries. These batteries provide an option to store large quantities of energy during periods when the generated electricity is not being consumed. The stored electricity can be used at periods when the generation of electricity is not enough to cover the demand. In this mode, redox flow batteries can significantly increase the value of renewable energy sources and represent an efficient energy supply, especially in remote areas. The performance of redox flow batteries indicated by the energy density figure of merit can be enhanced by means of porous, three-dimensional electrodes, highly catalytic electrodes, high linear flow velocities, and good turbulence promoters. Further work is required in the area of (1) reactor characterization, (2) electrocatalysis, (3) development and use of composite (e.g., carbon–polymer) electrodes and their lifetime, (4) membrane performance and its effect on electrolyte management, (5) large-scale engineering of redox flow cell systems and their integration with other energy systems, and (6) aging of all cell components and their performance. Improvements in redox flow cell technology can be anticipated owing to developments in (1) modular electrochemical reactor and stack design, (2) the engineering of electrode structures, (3) tailoring of the reaction environment in filter-press cells, (4) intelligent control systems to maximize overall efficiency, and (5) integration of flow battery technology with sustainable energy supplies (e.g., from wind and solar sources)|
|Keywords:||bromide, bromine, energy storage, redox flow batteries, Zinc, batteries, capacity, energy, self-discharge, batteries and fuel cells, power, electrolytes: non-aqueous, energy: energy storage, secondary batteries, secondary batteries – flow systems|
|Organisations:||Engineering Mats & Surface Engineerg Gp|
|Date Deposited:||08 Feb 2010|
|Last Modified:||18 Apr 2017 20:56|
|Further Information:||Google Scholar|
|RDF:||RDF+N-Triples, RDF+N3, RDF+XML, Browse.|
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