Löbler, Marian, Rohm, H.W., Schmitz, K.-P., Johnston, A.H., Newman, T.A., Ranjan, S., Sood, R. and Kinnunen, P.K.J.
Drug delivery by nanoparticles - facing the obstacles
In 4th European Conference of the International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering.
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There are numerous concepts of nanoparticle mediated drug delivery. The major advantage will be the option of targeted drug delivery to specific target cells thus avoiding high systemic loads of potentially toxic chemicals. Any kind of drug delivery by nanoparticles relies on delivery of the drug into the cell. In most cases that means drug delivery into the cytoplasm, and in some instances delivery of the drug to extracellular domains of transmembrane signalling molecules. Whenever viable cells are confronted with nanoparticles these are ingested by endocytosis rather then passage through the cell plasma membrane. Once inside endosomal vesicles the nanoparticles or at least their drug payload requires release into the cytoplasm in order to exert it’s biological effect. In order to monitor whether a drug delivered by nanoparticles is biologically active a toxic model drug, disulfiram, was chosen as a payload with micelle and liposome nanoparticles. L929 mouse fibroblasts were incubated with these disulfiram loaded naoparticles and cell viability was determined by quantification of celluar reductase activity. Applied nanoparticles are toxic to the cells. However, with respect to the disulfiram payload a 100-fold higher disulfiram concentration is required in comparison to free disulfiram for a biological effect. Hence, the toxic effect is most likely not due to the disulfiram delivered by the nanoparticles but rather to the amount of free disulfiram that is present in the nanoparticle preparation. Therefore it is advised to carefully characterize the nanoparticle suspension for the amount of free payload molecules
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