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Critical density index for the solar production of bittern from seawater

Critical density index for the solar production of bittern from seawater
Critical density index for the solar production of bittern from seawater
Solar extraction of common salt from seawater has been practiced for centuries in a rather crude manner because the process was not performed in stages to obtain a pure salt. The common practice in developing countries is to carry through with the evaporation process to the stage of dryness to facilitate harvesting the salt mix. If salt is harvested prior to the deposition of impurities during the evaporation process then the resulting bittern would provide chemicals which could have many commercial applications particularly in treatment industries. This paper describes an effective procedure for the separation of common salt and impurities. Sufficiently sensitive indicators that would signal the start and deposition of impurities in the course of the solar evaporation process were established. These indicators are particularly useful in regions where advanced desalting technology is not readily available.
bittern, common salt, solar production, seawater
0020-7233
85-97
Ayoub, G.M.
7de41073-fb34-4212-8d26-78eb90b52572
El-Fadel, M.
5a565dad-695d-4dd3-a3a6-f02389b82dc4
Acra, A.
44971997-13c0-43b8-b9cd-eed59cdc8a5e
Robinson, D.
da394e24-719a-4b80-a445-50e8c8beacab
Ayoub, G.M.
7de41073-fb34-4212-8d26-78eb90b52572
El-Fadel, M.
5a565dad-695d-4dd3-a3a6-f02389b82dc4
Acra, A.
44971997-13c0-43b8-b9cd-eed59cdc8a5e
Robinson, D.
da394e24-719a-4b80-a445-50e8c8beacab

Ayoub, G.M., El-Fadel, M., Acra, A. and Robinson, D. (2000) Critical density index for the solar production of bittern from seawater. International Journal of Environmental Studies, 58 (1), 85-97. (doi:10.1080/00207230008711318).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Solar extraction of common salt from seawater has been practiced for centuries in a rather crude manner because the process was not performed in stages to obtain a pure salt. The common practice in developing countries is to carry through with the evaporation process to the stage of dryness to facilitate harvesting the salt mix. If salt is harvested prior to the deposition of impurities during the evaporation process then the resulting bittern would provide chemicals which could have many commercial applications particularly in treatment industries. This paper describes an effective procedure for the separation of common salt and impurities. Sufficiently sensitive indicators that would signal the start and deposition of impurities in the course of the solar evaporation process were established. These indicators are particularly useful in regions where advanced desalting technology is not readily available.

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More information

Published date: December 2000
Additional Information: Ayoub G, El-Fadel M, Acra A, Abdallah R, (2000). "Critical density index for the solar production of bittern from seawater." Environmental Studies Part A, 58 (1), 85-97
Keywords: bittern, common salt, solar production, seawater

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 74381
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/74381
ISSN: 0020-7233
PURE UUID: 45f83a2c-a177-441d-9bfb-19ac7dbf2773

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 11 Mar 2010
Last modified: 18 Jul 2017 23:46

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