Moy, S.S.J. and Niku, S.M.
Finite element techniques for the analysis of cooling tower shells with geometric imperfections
Thin Walled Structures,, 1, (3), . (doi:10.1016/0263-8231(83)90009-5).
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Two finite element methods for analysing geometrically imperfect cooling tower shells are presented. In the first the geometry of the imperfection is modelled by the elements; in the second the imperfection is represented by an equivalent load on the shell. Axisymmetric and general shell elements have been considered.
Results are given which show that the first approximation to the equivalent load is sufficiently accurate and that it is possible to represent local imperfections by axisymmetric imperfections which require less computation. It is also shown that axisymmetric elements should be used wherever possible, because of their greater efficiency, following the geometry of an axisymmetric imperfection but representing local imperfections by equivalent loads.
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