Matthews, M.C., Hope, V.S. and Clayton, C.R.I.
The use of surface waves in the determination of ground stiffness profiles
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Geotechnical Engineering, 119, (2), . (doi:10.1680/igeng.1996.28168).
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Weak rocks display a more linear stress-strain behaviour and hence the loss of stiffness with increasing strain is much less than for most soils. 3. The measurement of stiffness using seismic methods relies on the propagation of elastic waves through the ground. When a hammer strikes the ground, two types of elastic wave are generated body waves and surface waves. Body waves comprise compressional (or P) waves and slower shear (or S) waves, both of which propagate into the ground...
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