Bowness, D. and Lee, M.M.K.
Stress intensity factor solutions for semi-elliptical weld-toe cracks in T-butt geometries
Fatigue and Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures, 19, (6), . (doi:10.1111/j.1460-2695.1996.tb01323.x).
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Weld toe magnification factors are widely used in the evaluation of stress intensity factors for cracks in welded structures. Traditionally, the weld magnification factor has been determined from 2-D plane strain models containing edge cracks. However, it has long been recognised that a semi-elliptical weld toe crack cannot be accurately represented by a 2-D approximation due to the 3-D nature of the geometry. As a consequence, some recent research has been carried out using 3-D numerical modelling, which highlights the limitations of the 2-D approach. Nevertheless, 3-D solutions are still scarce and are of limited validity due to the difficulties associated with creating the numerical models. This paper reports the most extensive 3-D numerical investigation of semi-elliptical cracks in T-butt geometries to date. Based on the numerical results, new and accurate equations for weld magnification factors were derived, which quantify the 3-D effects present and emphasise the importance of the attachment. The results obtained from these equations are then used in an assessment of existing solutions.
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