Chaplin, John R.
Nonlinear forces on a horizontal cylinder beneath waves
Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 147, . (doi:10.1017/S0022112084002160).
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Measurements of forces experienced by a submerged horizontal cylinder with its axis parallel to the crests in deep-water waves reveal nonlinear components with frequencies up to three times the fundamental wave frequency. The dominant nonlinear contribution to the loading is a t the third order in the wave amplitude, and, for Keulegan4arpenter numbers approaching 2, its magnitude was found to be as much as one-half that of the inertia force. It is suggested that the third-order force is associated with circulation generated by steady streaming in the oscillatory boundary layer on the cylinder. At higher Keulegan-Carpenter numbers, form drag becomes increasingly important, and velocity measurements close to the cylinder show the rapid development of the wake. Observations of nonlinear features of the transmitted waves are also discussed.
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