Field, S.J., Hanna, D.C., Shepherd, D.P., Tropper, A.C., Zhang, L., Chandler, P.J. and Townsend, P.D.
Characterization of ion implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG
Journal of Applied Physics, 69, (6), . (doi:10.1063/1.348962).
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Ion implantation into Nd:YAG has been used to produce waveguides which are capable of supporting laser action. The refractive index profiles have been characterized as a function of ion dose and energy, implant temperature, and subsequent thermal annealing. Transmission losses down to 1.2 dB/cm have been obtained in the optimized waveguides. There is a temperature independent index enhancement of ~0.15% in the electronic stopping (guiding) region. The nuclear collision damage is temperature dependent, and shows an initial index increase ~0.3% for dose 1x10^16 ions/cm^2), but a subsequent decrease of up to several percent, which forms an optical barrier, as has been observed in many other crystalline materials. The best mode confinement and attenuation is obtained by utilizing the low dose nuclear index enhancement produced by several equally spaced implants (multiple energy) to give a broad well with Deltan ~ 0.25%. Several unusual features of the profiles are reported and discussed.
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