Varnham, M.P., Payne, D.N., Barlow, A.J. and Birch, R.D.
Analytic solution for the birefringence produced by thermal stress in polarization-maintaining optical fibers
IEEE Journal of Lightwave Technology, 1, (2), . (doi:10.1109/JLT.1983.1072123).
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Polarization-maintaining optical fibers are usually made by inducing a large anisotropic thermal stress in the core so that it appears highly birefringent. A simple analytic solution has been found for the birefringence in terms of the cross-sectional distribution of the high-expansion material used to create the thermal stress. The analysis is able to predict optimal structures which efficiently utilize the available stress and thus maximize the birefringence. It is shown that the optimum structure has a cross-sectional geometry resembling a bow-tie. Design rules are given whereby the dimensions may be chosen and these are verified in a simple experiment.
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