The University of Southampton
University of Southampton Institutional Repository

Evidence for multiphase folding of the central Indian Ocean lithosphere

Krishna, K.S., Bull, J.M. and Scrutton, R.A. (2001) Evidence for multiphase folding of the central Indian Ocean lithosphere Geology, 29, (8), pp. 715-718. (doi:10.1130/0091-7613(2001)029<0715:EFMFOT>2.0.CO;2).

Record type: Article


Long-wavelength (100–300 km) folding in the central Indian Ocean associated with the diffuse plate boundary separating the Indian, Australian, and Capricorn plates is Earth's most convincing example of organized large-scale lithospheric deformation. To test the timing and mechanics of this deformation as implied by plate- kinematic and deformation models, we present a new analysis of the seismic stratigraphy of the Bengal Fan sediments. This analysis shows that the folding of the oceanic lithosphere was multiphase, with major events occurring in the Miocene (8.0–7.5 Ma), Pliocene (5.0–4.0 Ma), and Pleistocene (0.8 Ma). The Miocene phase was the most intense and involved deformation of an area south of 1°S, whereas in the Pliocene the activity shifted northward. In the final phase (Pleistocene), the activity was focused in the equatorial region. No evidence was found for deformation prior to 8.0–7.5 Ma. The spatial extent of the Pleistocene folding event overlaps the Pliocene and/or Miocene folding events and coincides with both the area of most active faulting and the zone of greatest historical seismicity. The seismic data show that the timing of reverse faulting, and thus more significant shortening of the lithosphere, generally coincided with the phases of folding, but there are examples of folding of the oceanic lithosphere without associated reverse faulting.

PDF - Author's Original
Download (2MB)

More information

Published date: 2001
Keywords: indian ocean, intraplate tectonics, bengal fan, folding, unconformities, plate boundaries, geology


Local EPrints ID: 7909
ISSN: 0091-7613
PURE UUID: d8c080ac-9c58-4816-8436-3014a1941475

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 12 Jul 2004
Last modified: 17 Jul 2017 17:13

Export record



Author: K.S. Krishna
Author: J.M. Bull
Author: R.A. Scrutton

University divisions

Download statistics

Downloads from ePrints over the past year. Other digital versions may also be available to download e.g. from the publisher's website.

View more statistics

Atom RSS 1.0 RSS 2.0

Contact ePrints Soton:

ePrints Soton supports OAI 2.0 with a base URL of

This repository has been built using EPrints software, developed at the University of Southampton, but available to everyone to use.

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you continue without changing your settings, we will assume that you are happy to receive cookies on the University of Southampton website.