Luo, K.H. and Sandham, N.D.
Instability of vertical and acoustic modes in supersonic round jets.
Physics of Fluids, 9, . (doi:10.1063/1.869196).
The stability of "top-hat" and fully developed jet profiles is investigated by an inviscid linear stability theory for compressible flow. The study covers a wide range of the Mach number and the temperature ratio. Two types of instabilities are found: vortical and acoustic, each of which can be subdivided into non-radiating (subsonic) and radiating (supersonic) modes. The vortical mode is the continuation of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability from incompressible flow. The acoustic mode is a compressible flow phenomenon, which becomes important at large Mach numbers. Temperature-ratio effects can be destabilizing or stabilizing, depending on the Mach number and mode of instability. A spectrum of unstable acoustic modes, including axisymmetric ones, are found to exist in the fully developed jet. For this jet, acoustic axisymmetric waves become more unstable than both vortical and acoustic helical waves at Mach numbers over about 3. Strong evidence of a resonance mechanism for acoustic modes is seen in the growth rate curves at high Mach numbers, where a spectrum of local peaks and valleys appears at regularly distributed frequencies
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