Jokinen, Jukka, McDonald, John W. and Smith, Peter W. F.
Meaningful regression and association models for clustered ordinal data
Sociological Methodology (doi:10.1111/j.1467-9531.2006.00173.x).
Many proposed methods for analyzing clustered ordinal data focus on the regression model and consider the association structure within a cluster as a nuisance. However, often the association structure is of equal interest, for example, temporal association in longitudinal studies and association between responses to similar questions in a survey. We discuss the use, appropriateness and interpretability of various latent variable and Markov models for the association structure and propose a new structure that exploits the ordinality of the response. The models are illustrated with a study concerning opinions regarding government spending and an analysis of stability and change in teenage marijuana use over time, where we reveal different behavioral patterns for boys and girls through a comprehensive investigation of individual response profiles.
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