The University of Southampton
University of Southampton Institutional Repository

Effect of nanotopogranphy in direct wafer bonding: modeling and measurements

Turner, K.T., Spearing, S.M., Baylies, W.A., Robinson, M. and Smythe, R. (2005) Effect of nanotopogranphy in direct wafer bonding: modeling and measurements IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing, 18, (2), pp. 289-296. (doi:10.1109/TSM.2005.845009).

Record type: Article


Nanotopography, which refers to surface height variations of tens to hundreds of nanometers that extend across millimeter-scale wavelengths, is a wafer geometry feature that may cause failure in direct wafer bonding processes. In this work, the nanotopography that is acceptable in direct bonding is determined using mechanics-based models that compare the elastic strain energy accumulated in the wafer during bonding to the work of adhesion. The modeling results are presented in the form of design maps that show acceptable magnitudes of height variations as a function of spatial wavelength. The influence of nanotopography in the bonding of prime grade silicon wafers is then assessed through a combination of measurements and analysis. Nanotopography measurements on three 150-mm silicon wafers, which were manufactured using different polishing processes, are reported and analyzed. Several different strategies are used to compare the wafers in terms of bondability and to assess the impact of the measured nanotopography in direct bonding. The measurement and analysis techniques reported here provide a general route for assessing the impact of nanotopography in direct bonding and can be employed when evaluating different processes to manufacture wafers for bonded devices or substrates.

PDF 23283.pdf - Version of Record
Download (967kB)

More information

Published date: 2005
Keywords: lead bonding, nanotechnology, semiconductor process modelling, surface topography measurement


Local EPrints ID: 23283
ISSN: 0894-6507
PURE UUID: 9b67472f-06f8-4200-91a3-5a0f92084b47

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 13 Mar 2006
Last modified: 17 Jul 2017 16:18

Export record



Author: K.T. Turner
Author: S.M. Spearing
Author: W.A. Baylies
Author: M. Robinson
Author: R. Smythe

University divisions

Download statistics

Downloads from ePrints over the past year. Other digital versions may also be available to download e.g. from the publisher's website.

View more statistics

Atom RSS 1.0 RSS 2.0

Contact ePrints Soton:

ePrints Soton supports OAI 2.0 with a base URL of

This repository has been built using EPrints software, developed at the University of Southampton, but available to everyone to use.

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you continue without changing your settings, we will assume that you are happy to receive cookies on the University of Southampton website.