The University of Southampton
University of Southampton Institutional Repository

Designable visual markers

Costanza, Enrico and Huang, Jeffrey (2009) Designable visual markers At CHI '09. Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, United States. 04 - 09 Apr 2009. , pp. 1879-1888. (doi:10.1145/1518701.1518990).

Record type: Conference or Workshop Item (Paper)


Visual markers are graphic symbols designed to be easily recognised by machines. They are traditionally used to track goods, but there is increasing interest in their application to mobile HCI. By scanning a visual marker through a camera phone users can retrieve localised information and access mobile services.

One missed opportunity in current visual marker systems is that the markers themselves cannot be visually designed, they are not expressive to humans, and thus fail to convey information before being scanned. This paper provides an overview of d-touch, an open source system that allows users to create their own markers, controlling their aesthetic qualities. The system runs in real-time on mobile phones and desktop computers. To increase computational efficiency d-touch imposes constraints on the design of the markers in terms of the relationship of dark and light regions in the symbols. We report a user study in which pairs of novice users generated between 3 and 27 valid and expressive markers within one hour of being introduced to the system, demonstrating its flexibility and ease of use.

PDF CHI09.pdf - Other
Download (515kB)

More information

e-pub ahead of print date: 8 April 2009
Venue - Dates: CHI '09. Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, United States, 2009-04-04 - 2009-04-09
Organisations: Agents, Interactions & Complexity


Local EPrints ID: 270952
ISBN: 978-1-60558-246-7
PURE UUID: 14a8c88f-71cd-4940-aa75-3d909596de68

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 30 Apr 2010 15:58
Last modified: 18 Jul 2017 06:49

Export record



Author: Enrico Costanza
Author: Jeffrey Huang

University divisions

Download statistics

Downloads from ePrints over the past year. Other digital versions may also be available to download e.g. from the publisher's website.

View more statistics

Atom RSS 1.0 RSS 2.0

Contact ePrints Soton:

ePrints Soton supports OAI 2.0 with a base URL of

This repository has been built using EPrints software, developed at the University of Southampton, but available to everyone to use.

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you continue without changing your settings, we will assume that you are happy to receive cookies on the University of Southampton website.