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Error resilient techniques for storage elements of low power design

Error resilient techniques for storage elements of low power design
Error resilient techniques for storage elements of low power design
Over two decades of research has led to numerous low-power design techniques being reported. Two popular techniques are supply voltage scaling and power gating. This thesis studies the impact of these two design techniques on the reliability of embedded processor registers and memory systems in the presence of transient faults; and with the aim to develop and validate efficient mitigation techniques to improve reliability with small cost of energy consumption, performance and area overhead. This thesis presents three original contributions. The first contribution presents a technique for improving the reliability of embedded processors. A key feature of the technique is low cost, which is achieved through reuse of the scan chain for state monitoring, and it is effective because it can correct single and multiple bit errors through hardware and software respectively. To validate the technique, ARMR Cortex TM -M0 embedded microprocessor is implemented in FPGA and further synthesised using 65-nm technology to quantify the cost in terms of area, latency and energy. It is shown that the presented technique has a small area overhead (8.6%) with less than 4% worst-case increase in critical path. The second contribution demonstrates that state integrity of flip-flops is sensitive to process, voltage and temperature (PVT) variation through measurements from 82 test chips. A PVT-aware state protection technique is presented to ensure state integrity of flip-flops while achieving maximum leakage savings. The technique consists of characterisation algorithm and employs horizontal and vertical parity for error detection and correction. Silicon results show that flip-flops state integrity is preserved while achieving up to 17.6% reduction in retention voltage across 82-dies. Embedded processors memory systems are susceptible to transient errors and blanket protection of every part of memory system through ECC is not cost effective. The final contribution addresses the reliability of embedded processor memory systems and describes an architectural simulation-based framework for joint optimisation of reliability, energy consumption and performance. Accurate estimation of memory reliability with targeted protection is proposed to identify and protect the most vulnerable part of the memory system to minimise protection cost. Furthermore, L1-cache resizing together with voltage and frequency scaling is proposed for further energy savings while maintaining performance and reliability. The contributions presented are supported by detailed analyses using state-of-the-art design automation tools, in-house software tools and validated using FPGA and silicon implementation of commercial low power embedded processors
Yang, Sheng
04b9848f-ddd4-4d8f-93b6-b91a2144d49c
Yang, Sheng
04b9848f-ddd4-4d8f-93b6-b91a2144d49c
Al-Hashimi, Bashir
0b29c671-a6d2-459c-af68-c4614dce3b5d

(2013) Error resilient techniques for storage elements of low power design. University of Southampton, Faculty of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Doctoral Thesis, 193pp.

Record type: Thesis (Doctoral)

Abstract

Over two decades of research has led to numerous low-power design techniques being reported. Two popular techniques are supply voltage scaling and power gating. This thesis studies the impact of these two design techniques on the reliability of embedded processor registers and memory systems in the presence of transient faults; and with the aim to develop and validate efficient mitigation techniques to improve reliability with small cost of energy consumption, performance and area overhead. This thesis presents three original contributions. The first contribution presents a technique for improving the reliability of embedded processors. A key feature of the technique is low cost, which is achieved through reuse of the scan chain for state monitoring, and it is effective because it can correct single and multiple bit errors through hardware and software respectively. To validate the technique, ARMR Cortex TM -M0 embedded microprocessor is implemented in FPGA and further synthesised using 65-nm technology to quantify the cost in terms of area, latency and energy. It is shown that the presented technique has a small area overhead (8.6%) with less than 4% worst-case increase in critical path. The second contribution demonstrates that state integrity of flip-flops is sensitive to process, voltage and temperature (PVT) variation through measurements from 82 test chips. A PVT-aware state protection technique is presented to ensure state integrity of flip-flops while achieving maximum leakage savings. The technique consists of characterisation algorithm and employs horizontal and vertical parity for error detection and correction. Silicon results show that flip-flops state integrity is preserved while achieving up to 17.6% reduction in retention voltage across 82-dies. Embedded processors memory systems are susceptible to transient errors and blanket protection of every part of memory system through ECC is not cost effective. The final contribution addresses the reliability of embedded processor memory systems and describes an architectural simulation-based framework for joint optimisation of reliability, energy consumption and performance. Accurate estimation of memory reliability with targeted protection is proposed to identify and protect the most vulnerable part of the memory system to minimise protection cost. Furthermore, L1-cache resizing together with voltage and frequency scaling is proposed for further energy savings while maintaining performance and reliability. The contributions presented are supported by detailed analyses using state-of-the-art design automation tools, in-house software tools and validated using FPGA and silicon implementation of commercial low power embedded processors

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Published date: 29 July 2013
Organisations: University of Southampton, Electronic & Software Systems

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Local EPrints ID: 355203
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/355203
PURE UUID: bcfd49a4-7c5e-4e07-a2bd-a5bd36c8861d

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Date deposited: 28 Aug 2013 10:24
Last modified: 18 Jul 2017 03:49

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