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Muscle size, strength, and physical performance and their associations with bone structure in the Hertfordshire Cohort Study

Muscle size, strength, and physical performance and their associations with bone structure in the Hertfordshire Cohort Study
Muscle size, strength, and physical performance and their associations with bone structure in the Hertfordshire Cohort Study
Sarcopenia is associated with a greater fracture risk. This relationship was originally thought to be explained by an increased risk of falls in sarcopenic individuals. However, in addition, there is growing evidence of a functional muscle-bone unit in which bone health may be directly influenced by muscle function. Because a definition of sarcopenia encompasses muscle size, strength, and physical performance, we investigated relationships for each of these with bone size, bone density, and bone strength to interrogate these hypotheses further in participants from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study. A total of 313 men and 318 women underwent baseline assessment of health and detailed anthropometric measurements. Muscle strength was measured by grip strength, and physical performance was determined by gait speed. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) examination of the calf and forearm was performed to assess muscle cross-sectional area (mCSA) at the 66% level and bone structure (radius 4% and 66% levels; tibia 4% and 38% levels). Muscle size was positively associated with bone size (distal radius total bone area ??=?17.5 mm2/SD [12.0, 22.9]) and strength (strength strain index (??=?23.3 mm3/SD [18.2, 28.4]) amongst women (p?<?0.001). These associations were also seen in men and were maintained after adjustment for age, height, weight-adjusted-for-height, limb-length-adjusted-for-height, social class, smoking status, alcohol consumption, calcium intake, physical activity, diabetes mellitus, and in women, years since menopause and estrogen replacement therapy. Although grip strength showed similar associations with bone size and strength in both sexes, these were substantially attenuated after similar adjustment. Consistent relationships between gait speed and bone structure were not seen. We conclude that although muscle size and grip strength are associated with bone size and strength, relationships between gait speed and bone structure and strength were not apparent in this cohort, supporting a role for the muscle-bone unit
0884-0431
2295-2304
Edwards, M.H.
b81ff294-1d16-4a1b-af14-9374c5989d4c
Gregson, C.L.
fc84c2dd-c427-486f-a212-3e3549cb5cdf
Patel, H.P.
6a3fce01-9f35-468a-8dce-38b31d3a60fa
Jameson, Karen
d5fb142d-06af-456e-9016-17497f94e9f2
Harvey, N.C.
ce487fb4-d360-4aac-9d17-9466d6cba145
Sayer, A.A.
fb4c2053-6d51-4fc1-9489-c3cb431b0ffb
Dennison, E.M.
ee647287-edb4-4392-8361-e59fd505b1d1
Cooper, C.
e05f5612-b493-4273-9b71-9e0ce32bdad6
Edwards, M.H.
b81ff294-1d16-4a1b-af14-9374c5989d4c
Gregson, C.L.
fc84c2dd-c427-486f-a212-3e3549cb5cdf
Patel, H.P.
6a3fce01-9f35-468a-8dce-38b31d3a60fa
Jameson, Karen
d5fb142d-06af-456e-9016-17497f94e9f2
Harvey, N.C.
ce487fb4-d360-4aac-9d17-9466d6cba145
Sayer, A.A.
fb4c2053-6d51-4fc1-9489-c3cb431b0ffb
Dennison, E.M.
ee647287-edb4-4392-8361-e59fd505b1d1
Cooper, C.
e05f5612-b493-4273-9b71-9e0ce32bdad6

Edwards, M.H., Gregson, C.L., Patel, H.P., Jameson, Karen, Harvey, N.C., Sayer, A.A., Dennison, E.M. and Cooper, C. (2013) Muscle size, strength, and physical performance and their associations with bone structure in the Hertfordshire Cohort Study. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 28 (11), 2295-2304. (doi:10.1002/jbmr.1972). (PMID:23633238)

Record type: Article

Abstract

Sarcopenia is associated with a greater fracture risk. This relationship was originally thought to be explained by an increased risk of falls in sarcopenic individuals. However, in addition, there is growing evidence of a functional muscle-bone unit in which bone health may be directly influenced by muscle function. Because a definition of sarcopenia encompasses muscle size, strength, and physical performance, we investigated relationships for each of these with bone size, bone density, and bone strength to interrogate these hypotheses further in participants from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study. A total of 313 men and 318 women underwent baseline assessment of health and detailed anthropometric measurements. Muscle strength was measured by grip strength, and physical performance was determined by gait speed. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) examination of the calf and forearm was performed to assess muscle cross-sectional area (mCSA) at the 66% level and bone structure (radius 4% and 66% levels; tibia 4% and 38% levels). Muscle size was positively associated with bone size (distal radius total bone area ??=?17.5 mm2/SD [12.0, 22.9]) and strength (strength strain index (??=?23.3 mm3/SD [18.2, 28.4]) amongst women (p?<?0.001). These associations were also seen in men and were maintained after adjustment for age, height, weight-adjusted-for-height, limb-length-adjusted-for-height, social class, smoking status, alcohol consumption, calcium intake, physical activity, diabetes mellitus, and in women, years since menopause and estrogen replacement therapy. Although grip strength showed similar associations with bone size and strength in both sexes, these were substantially attenuated after similar adjustment. Consistent relationships between gait speed and bone structure were not seen. We conclude that although muscle size and grip strength are associated with bone size and strength, relationships between gait speed and bone structure and strength were not apparent in this cohort, supporting a role for the muscle-bone unit

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Published date: November 2013
Organisations: Faculty of Medicine

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Local EPrints ID: 360411
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/360411
ISSN: 0884-0431
PURE UUID: ebbbcada-1a1c-4036-8cb1-f98cdbc20c91
ORCID for N.C. Harvey: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-8194-2512
ORCID for E.M. Dennison: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-3048-4961
ORCID for C. Cooper: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-3510-0709

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Date deposited: 06 Dec 2013 15:04
Last modified: 18 Feb 2021 17:02

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Contributors

Author: M.H. Edwards
Author: C.L. Gregson
Author: H.P. Patel
Author: Karen Jameson
Author: N.C. Harvey ORCID iD
Author: A.A. Sayer
Author: E.M. Dennison ORCID iD
Author: C. Cooper ORCID iD

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