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Investigation into yield and reliability enhancement of TSV-based three-dimensional integration circuits

Investigation into yield and reliability enhancement of TSV-based three-dimensional integration circuits
Investigation into yield and reliability enhancement of TSV-based three-dimensional integration circuits
Three dimensional integrated circuits (3D ICs) have been acknowledged as a promising technology to overcome the interconnect delay bottleneck brought by continuous CMOS scaling. Recent research shows that through-silicon-vias (TSVs), which act as vertical links between layers, pose yield and reliability challenges for 3D design. This thesis presents three original contributions.

The first contribution presents a grouping-based technique to improve the yield of 3D ICs under manufacturing TSV defects, where regular and redundant TSVs are partitioned into groups. In each group, signals can select good TSVs using rerouting multiplexers avoiding defective TSVs. Grouping ratio (regular to redundant TSVs in one group) has an impact on yield and hardware overhead. Mathematical probabilistic models are presented for yield analysis under the influence of independent and clustering defect distributions. Simulation results using MATLAB show that for a given number of TSVs and TSV failure rate, careful selection of grouping ratio results in achieving 100% yield at minimal hardware cost (number of multiplexers and redundant TSVs) in comparison to a design that does not exploit TSV grouping ratios. The second contribution presents an efficient online fault tolerance technique based on redundant TSVs, to detect TSV manufacturing defects and address thermal-induced reliability issue. The proposed technique accounts for both fault detection and recovery in the presence of three TSV defects: voids, delamination between TSV and landing pad, and TSV short-to-substrate. Simulations using HSPICE and ModelSim are carried out to validate fault detection and recovery. Results show that regular and redundant TSVs can be divided into groups to minimise area overhead without affecting the fault tolerance capability of the technique. Synthesis results using 130-nm design library show that 100% repair capability can be achieved with low area overhead (4% for the best case). The last contribution proposes a technique with joint consideration of temperature mitigation and fault tolerance without introducing additional redundant TSVs. This is achieved by reusing spare TSVs that are frequently deployed for improving yield and reliability in 3D ICs. The proposed technique consists of two steps: TSV determination step, which is for achieving optimal partition between regular and spare TSVs into groups; The second step is TSV placement, where temperature mitigation is targeted while optimizing total wirelength and routing difference. Simulation results show that using the proposed technique, 100% repair capability is achieved across all (five) benchmarks with an average temperature reduction of 75.2? (34.1%) (best case is 99.8? (58.5%)), while increasing wirelength by a small amount.
Zhao, Yi
0d8feab3-da2f-4efe-a099-2fa7c7c9f31e
Zhao, Yi
0d8feab3-da2f-4efe-a099-2fa7c7c9f31e
Al-Hashimi, Bashir
0b29c671-a6d2-459c-af68-c4614dce3b5d

Zhao, Yi (2014) Investigation into yield and reliability enhancement of TSV-based three-dimensional integration circuits. University of Southampton, Faculty of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Doctoral Thesis, 161pp.

Record type: Thesis (Doctoral)

Abstract

Three dimensional integrated circuits (3D ICs) have been acknowledged as a promising technology to overcome the interconnect delay bottleneck brought by continuous CMOS scaling. Recent research shows that through-silicon-vias (TSVs), which act as vertical links between layers, pose yield and reliability challenges for 3D design. This thesis presents three original contributions.

The first contribution presents a grouping-based technique to improve the yield of 3D ICs under manufacturing TSV defects, where regular and redundant TSVs are partitioned into groups. In each group, signals can select good TSVs using rerouting multiplexers avoiding defective TSVs. Grouping ratio (regular to redundant TSVs in one group) has an impact on yield and hardware overhead. Mathematical probabilistic models are presented for yield analysis under the influence of independent and clustering defect distributions. Simulation results using MATLAB show that for a given number of TSVs and TSV failure rate, careful selection of grouping ratio results in achieving 100% yield at minimal hardware cost (number of multiplexers and redundant TSVs) in comparison to a design that does not exploit TSV grouping ratios. The second contribution presents an efficient online fault tolerance technique based on redundant TSVs, to detect TSV manufacturing defects and address thermal-induced reliability issue. The proposed technique accounts for both fault detection and recovery in the presence of three TSV defects: voids, delamination between TSV and landing pad, and TSV short-to-substrate. Simulations using HSPICE and ModelSim are carried out to validate fault detection and recovery. Results show that regular and redundant TSVs can be divided into groups to minimise area overhead without affecting the fault tolerance capability of the technique. Synthesis results using 130-nm design library show that 100% repair capability can be achieved with low area overhead (4% for the best case). The last contribution proposes a technique with joint consideration of temperature mitigation and fault tolerance without introducing additional redundant TSVs. This is achieved by reusing spare TSVs that are frequently deployed for improving yield and reliability in 3D ICs. The proposed technique consists of two steps: TSV determination step, which is for achieving optimal partition between regular and spare TSVs into groups; The second step is TSV placement, where temperature mitigation is targeted while optimizing total wirelength and routing difference. Simulation results show that using the proposed technique, 100% repair capability is achieved across all (five) benchmarks with an average temperature reduction of 75.2? (34.1%) (best case is 99.8? (58.5%)), while increasing wirelength by a small amount.

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Published date: October 2014
Organisations: University of Southampton, Electronics & Computer Science

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 372485
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/372485
PURE UUID: 74b67c56-e5e3-463e-bdd3-b989a68d40ea

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Date deposited: 22 Dec 2014 14:56
Last modified: 17 Jul 2017 21:41

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Contributors

Author: Yi Zhao
Thesis advisor: Bashir Al-Hashimi

University divisions

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