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Higher PUFA and n-3 PUFA, conjugated linoleic acid, ?-tocopherol and iron, but lower iodine and selenium concentrations in organic milk: a systematic literature review and meta- and redundancy analyses

Higher PUFA and n-3 PUFA, conjugated linoleic acid, ?-tocopherol and iron, but lower iodine and selenium concentrations in organic milk: a systematic literature review and meta- and redundancy analyses
Higher PUFA and n-3 PUFA, conjugated linoleic acid, ?-tocopherol and iron, but lower iodine and selenium concentrations in organic milk: a systematic literature review and meta- and redundancy analyses
Demand for organic milk is partially driven by consumer perceptions that it is more nutritious. However, there is still considerable uncertainty over whether the use of organic production standards affects milk quality. Here we report results of meta-analyses based on 170 published studies comparing the nutrient content of organic and conventional bovine milk. There were no significant differences in total SFA and MUFA concentrations between organic and conventional milk. However, concentrations of total PUFA and n-3 PUFA were significantly higher in organic milk, by an estimated 7 (95 % CI ?1, 15) % and 56 (95 % CI 38, 74) %, respectively. Concentrations of ?-linolenic acid (ALA), very long-chain n-3 fatty acids (EPA+DPA+DHA) and conjugated linoleic acid were also significantly higher in organic milk, by an 69 (95 % CI 53, 84) %, 57 (95 % CI 27, 87) % and 41 (95 % CI 14, 68) %, respectively. As there were no significant differences in total n-6 PUFA and linoleic acid (LA) concentrations, the n-6:n-3 and LA:ALA ratios were lower in organic milk, by an estimated 71 (95 % CI ?122, ?20) % and 93 (95 % CI ?116, ?70) %. It is concluded that organic bovine milk has a more desirable fatty acid composition than conventional milk. Meta-analyses also showed that organic milk has significantly higher ?-tocopherol and Fe, but lower I and Se concentrations. Redundancy analysis of data from a large cross-European milk quality survey indicates that the higher grazing/conserved forage intakes in organic systems were the main reason for milk composition differences.
organic products, milk, dairy products, vitamins, antioxidents, n-3 pufa, conjugated linoleic acid
0007-1145
1043-1060
Średnicka-Tober, D.
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Barański, M.
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Seal, C.J.
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Sanderson, R.
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Benbrook, C.
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Steinshamn, H.
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Rembiałkowska, E.
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Skwarło-Sońta, K.
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Eyre, M.
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Cozzi, G.
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Larsen, M.K.
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Jordon, T.
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Sakowski, T.
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Calder, P.
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Burdge, G.
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Sotiraki, S.
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Stefanakis, A.
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Butler, G.
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Stewart, G.
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Średnicka-Tober, D.
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Barański, M.
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Seal, C.J.
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Sanderson, R.
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Benbrook, C.
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Steinshamn, H.
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Rembiałkowska, E.
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Eyre, M.
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Cozzi, G.
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Larsen, M.K.
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Jordon, T.
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Sakowski, T.
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Calder, P.
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Burdge, G.
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Sotiraki, S.
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Stefanakis, A.
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Stergiadis, S.
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Yolcu, H.
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Chatzidimitriou, E.
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Butler, G.
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Stewart, G.
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Leifert, C.
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Średnicka-Tober, D., Barański, M., Seal, C.J., Sanderson, R., Benbrook, C., Steinshamn, H., Gromadzka-Ostrowska, J., Rembiałkowska, E., Skwarło-Sońta, K., Eyre, M., Cozzi, G., Larsen, M.K., Jordon, T., Niggli, U., Sakowski, T., Calder, P., Burdge, G., Sotiraki, S., Stefanakis, A., Stergiadis, S., Yolcu, H., Chatzidimitriou, E., Butler, G., Stewart, G. and Leifert, C. (2016) Higher PUFA and n-3 PUFA, conjugated linoleic acid, ?-tocopherol and iron, but lower iodine and selenium concentrations in organic milk: a systematic literature review and meta- and redundancy analyses. British Journal of Nutrition, 115 (6), 1043-1060. (doi:10.1017/S0007114516000349). (PMID:26878105)

Record type: Article

Abstract

Demand for organic milk is partially driven by consumer perceptions that it is more nutritious. However, there is still considerable uncertainty over whether the use of organic production standards affects milk quality. Here we report results of meta-analyses based on 170 published studies comparing the nutrient content of organic and conventional bovine milk. There were no significant differences in total SFA and MUFA concentrations between organic and conventional milk. However, concentrations of total PUFA and n-3 PUFA were significantly higher in organic milk, by an estimated 7 (95 % CI ?1, 15) % and 56 (95 % CI 38, 74) %, respectively. Concentrations of ?-linolenic acid (ALA), very long-chain n-3 fatty acids (EPA+DPA+DHA) and conjugated linoleic acid were also significantly higher in organic milk, by an 69 (95 % CI 53, 84) %, 57 (95 % CI 27, 87) % and 41 (95 % CI 14, 68) %, respectively. As there were no significant differences in total n-6 PUFA and linoleic acid (LA) concentrations, the n-6:n-3 and LA:ALA ratios were lower in organic milk, by an estimated 71 (95 % CI ?122, ?20) % and 93 (95 % CI ?116, ?70) %. It is concluded that organic bovine milk has a more desirable fatty acid composition than conventional milk. Meta-analyses also showed that organic milk has significantly higher ?-tocopherol and Fe, but lower I and Se concentrations. Redundancy analysis of data from a large cross-European milk quality survey indicates that the higher grazing/conserved forage intakes in organic systems were the main reason for milk composition differences.

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Accepted/In Press date: 8 January 2016
e-pub ahead of print date: 16 February 2016
Published date: March 2016
Keywords: organic products, milk, dairy products, vitamins, antioxidents, n-3 pufa, conjugated linoleic acid
Organisations: Human Development & Health

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 388631
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/388631
ISSN: 0007-1145
PURE UUID: d1d7d6e8-2bed-4b98-9bf4-0ecb3dacd9f6
ORCID for P. Calder: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-6038-710X
ORCID for G. Burdge: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-7665-2967

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Date deposited: 01 Mar 2016 10:15
Last modified: 11 Mar 2021 02:35

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Contributors

Author: D. Średnicka-Tober
Author: M. Barański
Author: C.J. Seal
Author: R. Sanderson
Author: C. Benbrook
Author: H. Steinshamn
Author: J. Gromadzka-Ostrowska
Author: E. Rembiałkowska
Author: K. Skwarło-Sońta
Author: M. Eyre
Author: G. Cozzi
Author: M.K. Larsen
Author: T. Jordon
Author: U. Niggli
Author: T. Sakowski
Author: P. Calder ORCID iD
Author: G. Burdge ORCID iD
Author: S. Sotiraki
Author: A. Stefanakis
Author: S. Stergiadis
Author: H. Yolcu
Author: E. Chatzidimitriou
Author: G. Butler
Author: G. Stewart
Author: C. Leifert

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