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Sparse, l1-optimal multi-loudspeaker panning and its relation to vector base amplitude panning

Franck, Andreas, Wang, Wenwu and Fazi, Filippo (2017) Sparse, l1-optimal multi-loudspeaker panning and its relation to vector base amplitude panning IEEE/ACM Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing, 25, (5), pp. 996-1010. (doi:10.1109/TASLP.2017.2674975).

Record type: Article


Panning techniques, such as vector base amplitude panning (VBAP) are a widely-used practical approach for spatial sound reproduction using multiple loudspeakers. Although limited to a relatively small listening area, they are very efficient and offer good localisation accuracy, timbral quality as well as a graceful degradation of quality outside the sweet spot.The aim of this paper is to investigate optimal sound reproduction techniques that adopt
some of the advantageous properties of VBAP, such as the sparsity and the locality of the active loudspeakers for the reproduction of a single audio object. To this end, we state the task of multi-loudspeaker panning as an l1 optimization problem. We demonstrate and prove that the resulting solutions are exactly sparse. Moreover, we show the effect of adding a nonnegativity constraint on the loudspeaker gains in order to preserve the locality of the panning solution. Adding this constraint, l1-optimal panning can be formulated as a linear program. Using this representation, we prove that unique l1-optimal panning solutions incorporating a nonnegativity constraint are identical to VBAP using a Delaunay triangulation for the loudspeaker setup. Using results from linear programming and duality theory, we describe properties and special cases, such as solution ambiguity, of the VBAP solution.

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Accepted/In Press date: 7 February 2017
e-pub ahead of print date: 24 February 2017
Additional Information: All code and data underlying the findings are fully available without restriction. Details of the data and how to request access are available through the DOI:
Keywords: spatial sound reproduction, amplitude panning, VBAP, sparsity, l1 optimization, compressive sampling, linear programming
Organisations: Acoustics Group


Local EPrints ID: 406196
PURE UUID: cfaf88ec-0b1f-4d7a-b335-fa440cdf31de
ORCID for Andreas Franck: ORCID iD

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Date deposited: 10 Mar 2017 10:41
Last modified: 24 Jul 2017 16:35

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Author: Andreas Franck ORCID iD
Author: Wenwu Wang
Author: Filippo Fazi

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