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Higher maternal dietary protein intake and the risk for gestational diabetes mellitus in a multi-ethnic Asian cohort

Higher maternal dietary protein intake and the risk for gestational diabetes mellitus in a multi-ethnic Asian cohort
Higher maternal dietary protein intake and the risk for gestational diabetes mellitus in a multi-ethnic Asian cohort
Background: Dietary protein may affect glucose metabolism through several mechanisms, but results from studies on dietary protein intake and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have been inconsistent.

Objective: We examined the cross-sectional associations of dietary protein intake from different food sources during pregnancy with the risk of GDM in a multiethnic Asian population.

Methods: We included 980 participants with singleton pregnancies from the Growing Up in Singapore Toward healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort. Protein intake was ascertained from 24-h dietary recall and 3-d food diaries at 26–28 wk gestation. GDM was defined as fasting glucose ≥7.0 mmol/L and/or 2-h postload glucose ≥7.8 mmol/L at 26–28 wk gestation. We evaluated the association of dietary protein intake with GDM risk by substituting carbohydrate with protein in an isocaloric model with the use of multivariable logistic regression analysis.

Results: The prevalence of GDM was 17.9% among our participants. After adjustment for potential confounders, a higher total dietary protein intake was associated with a higher risk of GDM; the OR comparing the highest with the lowest quartile of intake was 2.15 (95% CI: 1.27, 3.62; P-trend = 0.016). Higher intake levels of both animal protein (OR: 2.87; 95% CI: 1.58, 5.20; P-trend = 0.001) and vegetable protein (OR: 1.78; 95% CI: 0.99, 3.20; P-trend = 0.009) were associated with a higher risk of GDM. Among the animal protein sources, higher intake levels of seafood protein (OR: 2.17; 95% CI: 1.26, 3.72; P-trend = 0.023) and dairy protein (OR: 1.87; 95% CI: 1.11, 3.15; P-trend = 0.017) were significantly associated with a higher GDM risk.

Conclusion: Higher intake levels of both animal and vegetable protein were associated with a higher risk of GDM in Asian women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01174875.
0022-3166
Pang, Wei Wei
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Colega, M.
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Cai, Shirong
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Chan, Yiong Huak
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Natarajan, Padmapriya
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Chen, Ling-Wei
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Han, Wee Meng
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Tan, Kok Hian
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Lee, Yung Seng
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Saw, Seang-Mei
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Gluckman, Peter D.
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Godfrey, Keith M.
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Chong, Yap-Seng
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van Dam, Rob M.
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Chong, Mary Foong-Fong
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Pang, Wei Wei
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Colega, M.
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Cai, Shirong
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Chan, Yiong Huak
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Natarajan, Padmapriya
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Chen, Ling-Wei
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Han, Wee Meng
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Tan, Kok Hian
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Lee, Yung Seng
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Saw, Seang-Mei
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Gluckman, Peter D.
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Godfrey, Keith M.
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Chong, Yap-Seng
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van Dam, Rob M.
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Chong, Mary Foong-Fong
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Pang, Wei Wei, Colega, M., Cai, Shirong, Chan, Yiong Huak, Natarajan, Padmapriya, Chen, Ling-Wei, Han, Wee Meng, Tan, Kok Hian, Lee, Yung Seng, Saw, Seang-Mei, Gluckman, Peter D., Godfrey, Keith M., Chong, Yap-Seng, van Dam, Rob M. and Chong, Mary Foong-Fong (2017) Higher maternal dietary protein intake and the risk for gestational diabetes mellitus in a multi-ethnic Asian cohort. Journal of Nutrition. (doi:10.3945/jn.116.243881).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Background: Dietary protein may affect glucose metabolism through several mechanisms, but results from studies on dietary protein intake and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have been inconsistent.

Objective: We examined the cross-sectional associations of dietary protein intake from different food sources during pregnancy with the risk of GDM in a multiethnic Asian population.

Methods: We included 980 participants with singleton pregnancies from the Growing Up in Singapore Toward healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort. Protein intake was ascertained from 24-h dietary recall and 3-d food diaries at 26–28 wk gestation. GDM was defined as fasting glucose ≥7.0 mmol/L and/or 2-h postload glucose ≥7.8 mmol/L at 26–28 wk gestation. We evaluated the association of dietary protein intake with GDM risk by substituting carbohydrate with protein in an isocaloric model with the use of multivariable logistic regression analysis.

Results: The prevalence of GDM was 17.9% among our participants. After adjustment for potential confounders, a higher total dietary protein intake was associated with a higher risk of GDM; the OR comparing the highest with the lowest quartile of intake was 2.15 (95% CI: 1.27, 3.62; P-trend = 0.016). Higher intake levels of both animal protein (OR: 2.87; 95% CI: 1.58, 5.20; P-trend = 0.001) and vegetable protein (OR: 1.78; 95% CI: 0.99, 3.20; P-trend = 0.009) were associated with a higher risk of GDM. Among the animal protein sources, higher intake levels of seafood protein (OR: 2.17; 95% CI: 1.26, 3.72; P-trend = 0.023) and dairy protein (OR: 1.87; 95% CI: 1.11, 3.15; P-trend = 0.017) were significantly associated with a higher GDM risk.

Conclusion: Higher intake levels of both animal and vegetable protein were associated with a higher risk of GDM in Asian women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01174875.

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Accepted/In Press date: 6 February 2017
e-pub ahead of print date: 8 March 2017
Published date: 1 April 2017
Organisations: Faculty of Medicine, Human Development & Health

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 406732
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/406732
ISSN: 0022-3166
PURE UUID: dc26a621-f2a6-404e-b19c-115ba7634246
ORCID for Keith M. Godfrey: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-4643-0618

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Date deposited: 21 Mar 2017 02:05
Last modified: 07 Oct 2020 06:47

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Contributors

Author: Wei Wei Pang
Author: M. Colega
Author: Shirong Cai
Author: Yiong Huak Chan
Author: Padmapriya Natarajan
Author: Ling-Wei Chen
Author: Wee Meng Han
Author: Kok Hian Tan
Author: Yung Seng Lee
Author: Seang-Mei Saw
Author: Peter D. Gluckman
Author: Yap-Seng Chong
Author: Rob M. van Dam
Author: Mary Foong-Fong Chong

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