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What do we actually see in intracellular SERS? Investigating nanosensor-induced variation

What do we actually see in intracellular SERS? Investigating nanosensor-induced variation
What do we actually see in intracellular SERS? Investigating nanosensor-induced variation
Plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs), predominantly gold (AuNPs), are easily internalised into cells and commonly emloyed as nanosensors for reporter-based and reporter-free intracellular SERS applications1. While AuNPs are generally considered non-toxic to cells, many biological and toxicity studies report that exposure to NPs induces cell stress through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and upregulated transcription of pro-inflammatory genes, which can result in severe genotoxicity and apoptosis2. Despite this, the extent to which normal cellular metabolism is affected by AuNP internalisation remains a relative unknown along with the contribution of the uptake itself to the SERS spectra obtained from within so called ‘healthy’ cells, as indicated by traditional viability tests. This work aims to interrogate the perturbation created by treatment with AuNPs under different conditions and the corresponding effect on the SERS spectra obtained. We characterise the changes induced by varying AuNP concentrations and media-serum compositions using biochemical assays and correlate them to the corresponding intracellular reporter-free SERS spectra. The different serum conditions lead to different extents of nanoparticle internalisation. We observe that changes in SERS spectra are correlated to increasing amount of internalisation, confirmed qualitatively and quantitatively by confocal imaging and ICP-MS analysis, respectively. We analyse spectra and characterise changes that can be attributed to nanoparticle induced changes. Thus, our study points to the need to understand condition-dependent NP-cell interactions and standardisation of nanoparticle treatments to establish the validity of intracellular SERS experiments and for use of the methodology for all arising applications.
surface-enhanced raman scattering (SERS), cells, Nanoparticles, nanoparticle uptake
1359-6640
409-428
Taylor, Jack
f3a9f1ba-4735-4aa4-9767-20c0ce90f9ca
Milton, Andy
9e183221-d0d4-4ddb-aeba-0fdde9d31230
Willett, Mark
dfa36c04-719a-4884-87cd-2ae13a3d2b67
Wingfield, Jonathan
284e8cf4-f4fc-466c-86d2-410f7684e93e
Mahajan, Sumeet
b131f40a-479e-4432-b662-19d60d4069e9
Taylor, Jack
f3a9f1ba-4735-4aa4-9767-20c0ce90f9ca
Milton, Andy
9e183221-d0d4-4ddb-aeba-0fdde9d31230
Willett, Mark
dfa36c04-719a-4884-87cd-2ae13a3d2b67
Wingfield, Jonathan
284e8cf4-f4fc-466c-86d2-410f7684e93e
Mahajan, Sumeet
b131f40a-479e-4432-b662-19d60d4069e9

Taylor, Jack, Milton, Andy, Willett, Mark, Wingfield, Jonathan and Mahajan, Sumeet (2017) What do we actually see in intracellular SERS? Investigating nanosensor-induced variation. Faraday Discussions, 205, 409-428. (doi:10.1039/C7FD00156H).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs), predominantly gold (AuNPs), are easily internalised into cells and commonly emloyed as nanosensors for reporter-based and reporter-free intracellular SERS applications1. While AuNPs are generally considered non-toxic to cells, many biological and toxicity studies report that exposure to NPs induces cell stress through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and upregulated transcription of pro-inflammatory genes, which can result in severe genotoxicity and apoptosis2. Despite this, the extent to which normal cellular metabolism is affected by AuNP internalisation remains a relative unknown along with the contribution of the uptake itself to the SERS spectra obtained from within so called ‘healthy’ cells, as indicated by traditional viability tests. This work aims to interrogate the perturbation created by treatment with AuNPs under different conditions and the corresponding effect on the SERS spectra obtained. We characterise the changes induced by varying AuNP concentrations and media-serum compositions using biochemical assays and correlate them to the corresponding intracellular reporter-free SERS spectra. The different serum conditions lead to different extents of nanoparticle internalisation. We observe that changes in SERS spectra are correlated to increasing amount of internalisation, confirmed qualitatively and quantitatively by confocal imaging and ICP-MS analysis, respectively. We analyse spectra and characterise changes that can be attributed to nanoparticle induced changes. Thus, our study points to the need to understand condition-dependent NP-cell interactions and standardisation of nanoparticle treatments to establish the validity of intracellular SERS experiments and for use of the methodology for all arising applications.

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Accepted/In Press date: 5 July 2017
e-pub ahead of print date: 5 July 2017
Published date: 5 July 2017
Keywords: surface-enhanced raman scattering (SERS), cells, Nanoparticles, nanoparticle uptake

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 412081
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/412081
ISSN: 1359-6640
PURE UUID: 984fc819-cc03-484d-86cc-08d3adf318b6
ORCID for Sumeet Mahajan: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-8923-6666

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Date deposited: 06 Jul 2017 16:30
Last modified: 18 Feb 2021 17:09

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Contributors

Author: Jack Taylor
Author: Andy Milton
Author: Mark Willett
Author: Jonathan Wingfield
Author: Sumeet Mahajan ORCID iD

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