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Macronutrient composition and food groups associated with gestational weight gain: the GUSTO study

Macronutrient composition and food groups associated with gestational weight gain: the GUSTO study
Macronutrient composition and food groups associated with gestational weight gain: the GUSTO study
Purpose:

To examine the associations of energy, macronutrient and food intakes with GWG on 960 pregnant women from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) mother-offspring cohort.

Methods:

Dietary intake was assessed at 26–28 weeks’ gestation with a 24-hour recall and 3-day food diary. GWG z-scores were calculated from first (4–13 weeks’ gestation) and last (30–40 weeks gestation) measured weights; inadequate and excessive GWG were defined using the Institute of Medicine recommendations based on weights between 15 and 35 weeks’ gestation. Associations were examined using substitution models for macronutrient composition, with linear or multinomial logistic regressions.

Results:

Mean ± SD daily energy intake was 1868 ± 598 kcal, and percentage energy intakes were 51.8 ± 8.9% from carbohydrate, 15.7 ± 3.9% from protein and 32.6 ± 7.7% from fat. Higher energy intake (per 500 kcal increment) was associated with 0.18 SD higher GWG. In isocaloric diets, higher-carbohydrate and lower-fat intakes (at 5% energy substitution) were associated with 0.07 SD higher GWG, and 14% higher likelihood of excessive GWG. Concordantly, the highest tertile of carbohydrate-rich foods intake was associated with 0.20 SD higher GWG, but the highest tertile of fruit and vegetable intake was independently associated with 60% lower likelihood of inadequate GWG. Additionally, the highest tertile of dairy intake was associated with 0.18 SD lower GWG; and the highest tertile of plant-based protein foods intake was associated with 60% and 34% lower likelihood of inadequate and excessive GWG.

Conclusions:

Balancing the proportions of carbohydrates and fat, and a higher intake of plant-based protein foods may be beneficial for achieving optimal GWG.
1436-6207
1081-1094
Lai, Jun S.
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Soh, Soh E.
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Loy, See Ling
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Colega, Marjorelee T.
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Kramer, Michael S.
89f86ceb-c49e-4402-a1e3-d79c406c178d
Chan, Jerry K.Y.
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Tan, Thiam Chye
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Shek, Lynette P.C.
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Yap, Fabian
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Tan, Kok Hian
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Godfrey, Keith
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Chong, Yap-Seng
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Chong, Mary F.F.
7c540836-aa50-4fc4-81f8-36ff8e0c773c
Lai, Jun S.
1fd69464-147f-4220-ab67-f9d76437cf3b
Soh, Soh E.
00a5ad13-4c5b-4fad-aaa9-d080d9aa63e8
Loy, See Ling
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Colega, Marjorelee T.
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Kramer, Michael S.
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Chan, Jerry K.Y.
42e59d61-c3d1-486b-b33a-22c4645acf12
Tan, Thiam Chye
83b37f68-9021-4394-97df-cbe2d130a2dd
Shek, Lynette P.C.
5239db80-078c-4143-8b3c-0d48dfe76c14
Yap, Fabian
22f6b954-31fc-4696-a52b-e985a424b95b
Tan, Kok Hian
d1d689a8-cf28-4669-8493-b3f8fc704882
Godfrey, Keith
0931701e-fe2c-44b5-8f0d-ec5c7477a6fd
Chong, Yap-Seng
7043124b-e892-4d4b-8bb7-6d35ed94e136
Chong, Mary F.F.
7c540836-aa50-4fc4-81f8-36ff8e0c773c

Lai, Jun S., Soh, Soh E., Loy, See Ling, Colega, Marjorelee T., Kramer, Michael S., Chan, Jerry K.Y., Tan, Thiam Chye, Shek, Lynette P.C., Yap, Fabian, Tan, Kok Hian, Godfrey, Keith, Chong, Yap-Seng and Chong, Mary F.F. (2019) Macronutrient composition and food groups associated with gestational weight gain: the GUSTO study. European Journal of Nutrition, 58 (3), 1081-1094. (doi:10.1007/s00394-018-1623-3).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Purpose:

To examine the associations of energy, macronutrient and food intakes with GWG on 960 pregnant women from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) mother-offspring cohort.

Methods:

Dietary intake was assessed at 26–28 weeks’ gestation with a 24-hour recall and 3-day food diary. GWG z-scores were calculated from first (4–13 weeks’ gestation) and last (30–40 weeks gestation) measured weights; inadequate and excessive GWG were defined using the Institute of Medicine recommendations based on weights between 15 and 35 weeks’ gestation. Associations were examined using substitution models for macronutrient composition, with linear or multinomial logistic regressions.

Results:

Mean ± SD daily energy intake was 1868 ± 598 kcal, and percentage energy intakes were 51.8 ± 8.9% from carbohydrate, 15.7 ± 3.9% from protein and 32.6 ± 7.7% from fat. Higher energy intake (per 500 kcal increment) was associated with 0.18 SD higher GWG. In isocaloric diets, higher-carbohydrate and lower-fat intakes (at 5% energy substitution) were associated with 0.07 SD higher GWG, and 14% higher likelihood of excessive GWG. Concordantly, the highest tertile of carbohydrate-rich foods intake was associated with 0.20 SD higher GWG, but the highest tertile of fruit and vegetable intake was independently associated with 60% lower likelihood of inadequate GWG. Additionally, the highest tertile of dairy intake was associated with 0.18 SD lower GWG; and the highest tertile of plant-based protein foods intake was associated with 60% and 34% lower likelihood of inadequate and excessive GWG.

Conclusions:

Balancing the proportions of carbohydrates and fat, and a higher intake of plant-based protein foods may be beneficial for achieving optimal GWG.

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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 25 January 2018
e-pub ahead of print date: 13 February 2018
Published date: April 2019

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 418533
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/418533
ISSN: 1436-6207
PURE UUID: 6562b2b7-ec92-4e82-84fd-6d91d0011765
ORCID for Keith Godfrey: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-4643-0618

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 09 Mar 2018 17:31
Last modified: 26 Nov 2021 05:10

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Contributors

Author: Jun S. Lai
Author: Soh E. Soh
Author: See Ling Loy
Author: Marjorelee T. Colega
Author: Michael S. Kramer
Author: Jerry K.Y. Chan
Author: Thiam Chye Tan
Author: Lynette P.C. Shek
Author: Fabian Yap
Author: Kok Hian Tan
Author: Keith Godfrey ORCID iD
Author: Yap-Seng Chong
Author: Mary F.F. Chong

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