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Diet quality and sarcopenia in older adults: a systematic review

Diet quality and sarcopenia in older adults: a systematic review
Diet quality and sarcopenia in older adults: a systematic review
The increasing recognition of sarcopenia, the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function (muscle strength and physical performance), as a determinant of poor health in older age, has emphasized the importance of understanding more about its aetiology to inform strategies both for preventing and treating this condition. There is growing interest in the effects of modifiable factors such as diet; some nutrients have been studied but less is known about the influence of overall diet quality on sarcopenia. We conducted a systematic review of the literature examining the relationship between diet quality and the individual components of sarcopenia, i.e. muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance, and the overall risk of sarcopenia, among older adults. We identified 23 studies that met review inclusion criteria. The studies were diverse in terms of the design, setting, measures of diet quality, and outcome measurements. A small body of evidence suggested a relationship between healthier diets and better muscle mass outcomes. There was limited and inconsistent evidence for a link between ‘healthier’ diets and lower risk of declines in muscle strength. There was strong and consistent observational evidence for a link between ‘healthier’ diets and lower risk of declines in physical performance. There was a small body of cross-sectional evidence showing an association between healthier diets and lower risk of sarcopenia. This review provides observational evidence to support the benefits of diets of higher quality for physical performance among older adults. Findings for the other outcomes considered suggest some benefits, although the evidence is either limited in its extent (sarcopenia) or inconsistent/weak in its nature (muscle mass, muscle strength). Further studies are needed to assess the potential of whole-diet interventions for the prevention and management of sarcopenia.
Bloom, Ilse
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Shand, Callum
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Cooper, Cyrus
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Robinson, Sian
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Baird, Janis
f4bf2039-6118-436f-ab69-df8b4d17f824
Bloom, Ilse
af2a38ab-3255-414d-afa1-e3089ee45e3f
Shand, Callum
3b2cb4d5-8545-4fb6-9fed-58e33e53755e
Cooper, Cyrus
e05f5612-b493-4273-9b71-9e0ce32bdad6
Robinson, Sian
ba591c98-4380-456a-be8a-c452f992b69b
Baird, Janis
f4bf2039-6118-436f-ab69-df8b4d17f824

Bloom, Ilse, Shand, Callum, Cooper, Cyrus, Robinson, Sian and Baird, Janis (2018) Diet quality and sarcopenia in older adults: a systematic review. Nutrients, 10 (3). (doi:10.3390/nu10030308).

Record type: Article

Abstract

The increasing recognition of sarcopenia, the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function (muscle strength and physical performance), as a determinant of poor health in older age, has emphasized the importance of understanding more about its aetiology to inform strategies both for preventing and treating this condition. There is growing interest in the effects of modifiable factors such as diet; some nutrients have been studied but less is known about the influence of overall diet quality on sarcopenia. We conducted a systematic review of the literature examining the relationship between diet quality and the individual components of sarcopenia, i.e. muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance, and the overall risk of sarcopenia, among older adults. We identified 23 studies that met review inclusion criteria. The studies were diverse in terms of the design, setting, measures of diet quality, and outcome measurements. A small body of evidence suggested a relationship between healthier diets and better muscle mass outcomes. There was limited and inconsistent evidence for a link between ‘healthier’ diets and lower risk of declines in muscle strength. There was strong and consistent observational evidence for a link between ‘healthier’ diets and lower risk of declines in physical performance. There was a small body of cross-sectional evidence showing an association between healthier diets and lower risk of sarcopenia. This review provides observational evidence to support the benefits of diets of higher quality for physical performance among older adults. Findings for the other outcomes considered suggest some benefits, although the evidence is either limited in its extent (sarcopenia) or inconsistent/weak in its nature (muscle mass, muscle strength). Further studies are needed to assess the potential of whole-diet interventions for the prevention and management of sarcopenia.

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Accepted/In Press date: 1 March 2018
e-pub ahead of print date: 5 March 2018
Published date: 2018

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 418658
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/418658
PURE UUID: 9731b232-3465-4ddc-8e64-a14a042c4960
ORCID for Cyrus Cooper: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-3510-0709
ORCID for Sian Robinson: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-1766-7269
ORCID for Janis Baird: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-4039-4361

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Date deposited: 15 Mar 2018 17:30
Last modified: 10 Dec 2019 01:58

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Contributors

Author: Ilse Bloom
Author: Callum Shand
Author: Cyrus Cooper ORCID iD
Author: Sian Robinson ORCID iD
Author: Janis Baird ORCID iD

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