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Food sources of energy and macronutrient intakes among infants from 6 to 12 months of age:: the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) Cohort Study

Food sources of energy and macronutrient intakes among infants from 6 to 12 months of age:: the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) Cohort Study
Food sources of energy and macronutrient intakes among infants from 6 to 12 months of age:: the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) Cohort Study
Adequate nutrition during complementary feeding is important for the growth, development and well-being of children. We aim to examine the energy and macronutrient intake composition and their main food sources in a mother–offspring cohort study in Singapore. The diets of infants were assessed by 24 h dietary recalls or food diaries collected from mothers when their offspring were 6 (n = 760), 9 (n = 893) and 12 (n = 907) months of age. Food sources of energy and macronutrients were determined using the population proportion methodology. Energy intakes per day (kcal; mean (standard deviation, SD)) of these infants were 640 (158) at 6 months, 675 (173) at 9 months, and 761 (208) at 12 months. Infant formula, breastmilk and infant cereals were the top three food sources of energy and macronutrient intakes in infants through the period 6 to 12 months. Other main energy and carbohydrate sources at 9 and 12 months of age were rice porridge, infant biscuits and fresh fruits, while fish, red meat and eggs were the other main protein and total fat sources. Breast-fed and mixed-fed infants had a more varied diet as compared to formula-fed infants. Formula-fed infants had consistently higher protein and lower total fat consumption compared to those who were breastfed. An understanding of these main food sources during complementary feeding can inform local dietary recommendations and policies.
1660-4601
Lim, Shan-Xuan
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Toh, Jia Ying
a46b9259-cbbf-41ba-b8ba-536b66e0b28a
van Lee, Linde
012a9253-9931-48ee-888c-823639e08c4e
Han, Wee Meng
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Shek, Lynette
517f03d8-e62a-43bd-aabe-d76d870a81ea
Tan, Kok Hian
87137812-e57d-4a7e-9d08-1ebdf10ceaef
Yap, Fabian
22f6b954-31fc-4696-a52b-e985a424b95b
Godfrey, Keith
0931701e-fe2c-44b5-8f0d-ec5c7477a6fd
Chong, Yap-Seng
7043124b-e892-4d4b-8bb7-6d35ed94e136
Chong, Mary Foong-Fong
1e188259-b1ab-4448-9e65-5b6a0fd99502
Lim, Shan-Xuan
2aefa518-061b-463a-83ac-8c081f305e2d
Toh, Jia Ying
a46b9259-cbbf-41ba-b8ba-536b66e0b28a
van Lee, Linde
012a9253-9931-48ee-888c-823639e08c4e
Han, Wee Meng
2c5b36f2-c77b-49b4-92ba-e21039f27ecd
Shek, Lynette
517f03d8-e62a-43bd-aabe-d76d870a81ea
Tan, Kok Hian
87137812-e57d-4a7e-9d08-1ebdf10ceaef
Yap, Fabian
22f6b954-31fc-4696-a52b-e985a424b95b
Godfrey, Keith
0931701e-fe2c-44b5-8f0d-ec5c7477a6fd
Chong, Yap-Seng
7043124b-e892-4d4b-8bb7-6d35ed94e136
Chong, Mary Foong-Fong
1e188259-b1ab-4448-9e65-5b6a0fd99502

Lim, Shan-Xuan, Toh, Jia Ying, van Lee, Linde, Han, Wee Meng, Shek, Lynette, Tan, Kok Hian, Yap, Fabian, Godfrey, Keith, Chong, Yap-Seng and Chong, Mary Foong-Fong (2018) Food sources of energy and macronutrient intakes among infants from 6 to 12 months of age:: the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) Cohort Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15 (3). (doi:10.3390/ijerph15030488).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Adequate nutrition during complementary feeding is important for the growth, development and well-being of children. We aim to examine the energy and macronutrient intake composition and their main food sources in a mother–offspring cohort study in Singapore. The diets of infants were assessed by 24 h dietary recalls or food diaries collected from mothers when their offspring were 6 (n = 760), 9 (n = 893) and 12 (n = 907) months of age. Food sources of energy and macronutrients were determined using the population proportion methodology. Energy intakes per day (kcal; mean (standard deviation, SD)) of these infants were 640 (158) at 6 months, 675 (173) at 9 months, and 761 (208) at 12 months. Infant formula, breastmilk and infant cereals were the top three food sources of energy and macronutrient intakes in infants through the period 6 to 12 months. Other main energy and carbohydrate sources at 9 and 12 months of age were rice porridge, infant biscuits and fresh fruits, while fish, red meat and eggs were the other main protein and total fat sources. Breast-fed and mixed-fed infants had a more varied diet as compared to formula-fed infants. Formula-fed infants had consistently higher protein and lower total fat consumption compared to those who were breastfed. An understanding of these main food sources during complementary feeding can inform local dietary recommendations and policies.

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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 5 March 2018
e-pub ahead of print date: 10 March 2018

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 418682
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/418682
ISSN: 1660-4601
PURE UUID: 101cf821-815d-444d-a5ec-4f89bbe6e31d
ORCID for Keith Godfrey: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-4643-0618

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 16 Mar 2018 17:30
Last modified: 10 Dec 2019 01:57

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