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A joint algorithm and architecture design approach to joint source and channel coding schemes

A joint algorithm and architecture design approach to joint source and channel coding schemes
A joint algorithm and architecture design approach to joint source and channel coding schemes
Shannon's separate source and channel coding theorem suggests that communication of throughputs closely approaching the capacity of the channel can be achieved using an near-entropy source code to compress a source by removing all redundancy, combined with a near-capacity channel code which adds redundancy to increase the resilience to transmission errors. However, in practice, Separate Source and Channel Coding (SSCC) can impose excessive delay and complexity, or cannot tolerate any transmission errors without causing an endless cascade of errors. This motives Joint Source and Channel Coding (JSCC), where the residual redundancy from a non-optimal source code is used by the channel code in order to increase the error correction capability. In particular, the recently proposed Unary Error Correction (UEC) code is an example of a JSCC scheme, which is well suited to encoding symbols generated during multimedia transmission, such as a H.264 or H.265 video encoder. Despite this, the UEC is only suitable for encoding symbols that are generated according to a limited range of probability distributions. Furthermore, due to their computational complexity, iterative decoder components such as source and channel decoders are usually implemented using specialized dedicated hardware. Despite this, there is little work in the open literature on the hardware implementation of JSCC schemes. Against this background, this thesis jointly considers the algorithm and architecture design of joint source and channel codes for the first time, in order to achieve an increased error correction performance and an improved hardware efficiency.

This thesis begins by proposing improvements to the UEC JSCC scheme. Firstly, an adaptive activation order algorithm is extended for use with a more complex UEC scheme, which comprises four iterative components, including a demodulator. This adaptive activation order algorithm facilitates an improved error correction performance, using a reduced number of iterations. Following this, in order to increase the applicability of the UEC code, it is extended and generalized to obtain the novel RiceEC and ExpGEC codes. These codes can be applied to any arbitrary unbound monotonic symbol distribution, including the symbols produced by the H.265 video codec and the letters of the English alphabet. Furthermore, the practicality of the proposed codes is enhanced to allow a continuous stream of symbol values to be encoded and decoded using only fixed-length system components.

This thesis also provides the first hardware implementations of UEC schemes. Owing to their relatively high complexity, many capacity-approaching techniques proposed in the literature have not yet been invoked in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) applications, despite their potential benefits of facilitating a reduced transmission power or extended communication range. Against this background, this thesis proposes an energy-efficient architecture comprised of multiple Calculation Units (CUs), which is sufficiently flexible for accommodating different iterative decoder components of a UEC-based JSCC scheme, using the same hardware. This architecture achieves a throughput suitable for low-speed video applications, while achieving high hardware utilisation, which is important in cost- and energy-sensitive applications.

Following this, a UEC scheme is implemented for very high throughput applications, by extending the philosophy of the Fully Parallel Turbo Decoder (FPTD). More specifically, in the wireless transmission of multimedia information, the achievable transmission throughput and latency may be limited by the processing throughput and latency associated with source and channel coding. For example, ultra-high throughput and ultra-low latency processing of source and channel coding is required by the emerging new video transmission applications, such as the first-person remote control of unmanned vehicles. Here, a new architecture is developed by jointly considering the algorithm and hardware implementation, in order to achieve an improved hardware efficiency, high throughput, and low latency. This thesis will demonstrate the application of these improvements to both the LTE turbo code and the UEC code, where the proposed design achieves a throughput of 450 Mbps on a mid-range FPGA, as well as a factor of 2.4 hardware efficiency improvement over previous implementations of the FPTD.
University of Southampton
Brejza, Matthew
a761342e-e140-45a7-ad48-095a6628af17
Brejza, Matthew
a761342e-e140-45a7-ad48-095a6628af17
Hanzo, Lajos
66e7266f-3066-4fc0-8391-e000acce71a1

Brejza, Matthew (2016) A joint algorithm and architecture design approach to joint source and channel coding schemes. University of Southampton, Doctoral Thesis, 226pp.

Record type: Thesis (Doctoral)

Abstract

Shannon's separate source and channel coding theorem suggests that communication of throughputs closely approaching the capacity of the channel can be achieved using an near-entropy source code to compress a source by removing all redundancy, combined with a near-capacity channel code which adds redundancy to increase the resilience to transmission errors. However, in practice, Separate Source and Channel Coding (SSCC) can impose excessive delay and complexity, or cannot tolerate any transmission errors without causing an endless cascade of errors. This motives Joint Source and Channel Coding (JSCC), where the residual redundancy from a non-optimal source code is used by the channel code in order to increase the error correction capability. In particular, the recently proposed Unary Error Correction (UEC) code is an example of a JSCC scheme, which is well suited to encoding symbols generated during multimedia transmission, such as a H.264 or H.265 video encoder. Despite this, the UEC is only suitable for encoding symbols that are generated according to a limited range of probability distributions. Furthermore, due to their computational complexity, iterative decoder components such as source and channel decoders are usually implemented using specialized dedicated hardware. Despite this, there is little work in the open literature on the hardware implementation of JSCC schemes. Against this background, this thesis jointly considers the algorithm and architecture design of joint source and channel codes for the first time, in order to achieve an increased error correction performance and an improved hardware efficiency.

This thesis begins by proposing improvements to the UEC JSCC scheme. Firstly, an adaptive activation order algorithm is extended for use with a more complex UEC scheme, which comprises four iterative components, including a demodulator. This adaptive activation order algorithm facilitates an improved error correction performance, using a reduced number of iterations. Following this, in order to increase the applicability of the UEC code, it is extended and generalized to obtain the novel RiceEC and ExpGEC codes. These codes can be applied to any arbitrary unbound monotonic symbol distribution, including the symbols produced by the H.265 video codec and the letters of the English alphabet. Furthermore, the practicality of the proposed codes is enhanced to allow a continuous stream of symbol values to be encoded and decoded using only fixed-length system components.

This thesis also provides the first hardware implementations of UEC schemes. Owing to their relatively high complexity, many capacity-approaching techniques proposed in the literature have not yet been invoked in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) applications, despite their potential benefits of facilitating a reduced transmission power or extended communication range. Against this background, this thesis proposes an energy-efficient architecture comprised of multiple Calculation Units (CUs), which is sufficiently flexible for accommodating different iterative decoder components of a UEC-based JSCC scheme, using the same hardware. This architecture achieves a throughput suitable for low-speed video applications, while achieving high hardware utilisation, which is important in cost- and energy-sensitive applications.

Following this, a UEC scheme is implemented for very high throughput applications, by extending the philosophy of the Fully Parallel Turbo Decoder (FPTD). More specifically, in the wireless transmission of multimedia information, the achievable transmission throughput and latency may be limited by the processing throughput and latency associated with source and channel coding. For example, ultra-high throughput and ultra-low latency processing of source and channel coding is required by the emerging new video transmission applications, such as the first-person remote control of unmanned vehicles. Here, a new architecture is developed by jointly considering the algorithm and hardware implementation, in order to achieve an improved hardware efficiency, high throughput, and low latency. This thesis will demonstrate the application of these improvements to both the LTE turbo code and the UEC code, where the proposed design achieves a throughput of 450 Mbps on a mid-range FPGA, as well as a factor of 2.4 hardware efficiency improvement over previous implementations of the FPTD.

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Published date: December 2016

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 419061
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/419061
PURE UUID: 6143c2dc-6234-4eb1-b5e0-7d00f83aae1d
ORCID for Lajos Hanzo: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-2636-5214

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Date deposited: 28 Mar 2018 16:30
Last modified: 30 Jan 2020 05:01

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