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Holocene floristic diversity and richness in northeast Norway revealed by sedimentary ancient DNA (sedaDNA) and pollen

Holocene floristic diversity and richness in northeast Norway revealed by sedimentary ancient DNA (sedaDNA) and pollen
Holocene floristic diversity and richness in northeast Norway revealed by sedimentary ancient DNA (sedaDNA) and pollen
We present a Holocene record of floristic diversity and environmental change for the central Varanger Peninsula, Finnmark, based on ancient DNA extracted from the sediments of a small lake (sedaDNA). The record covers the period ca. 10,700 to 3,300 cal. a BP and is complemented by pollen data. Measures of species richness, sample evenness, and beta-diversity were calculated based on sedaDNA sampling intervals and 1000-year time windows. We identified 101 vascular plant and 17 bryophyte taxa, a high proportion (86 %) of which are still growing within the region today. The high species richness (>60 taxa) observed in the early-Holocene, including representatives from all important plant functional groups, shows that modern shrub-tundra communities, and much of their species complement, were in place as early as ca. 10,700 cal. a BP. We infer that post-glacial colonisation of the area occurred prior to the Holocene, during the Younger Dryas stadial or earlier. Abundant DNA of the extra-limital aquatic plant Callitriche hermaphroditica suggests it expanded its range northward between ca. 10,200 and 9,600 cal. a BP, when summers were warmer than present. High values of Pinus DNA occur throughout the record, but we cannot say with certainty if they represent prior local presence; however, pollen influx values >500 grains/cm2/a-1 between ca. 8,000 and 7,300 cal. a BP strongly suggest the presence of pine woodland during this period. As the site lies beyond the modern tree limit of pine, it is likely that this expansion also reflects a response to warmer early-Holocene summers.
0300-9483
Clarke, Charlotte
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Edwards, Mary
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Brown, Antony
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Gielly, Ludovic
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Lammers, Youri
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Heintzman, Peter
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Ancin-Murguzur, Xavier
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Bråthen, Kari-Anne
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Goslar, Tomasz
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Alsos, Inger
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Clarke, Charlotte
68afb5e9-7966-4b54-9549-47c49e350f6c
Edwards, Mary
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Brown, Antony
c51f9d3e-02b0-47da-a483-41c354e78fab
Gielly, Ludovic
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Lammers, Youri
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Heintzman, Peter
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Ancin-Murguzur, Xavier
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Bråthen, Kari-Anne
35789f60-9819-45ee-a4fe-ff4a9f2108a5
Goslar, Tomasz
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Alsos, Inger
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Clarke, Charlotte, Edwards, Mary, Brown, Antony, Gielly, Ludovic, Lammers, Youri, Heintzman, Peter, Ancin-Murguzur, Xavier, Bråthen, Kari-Anne, Goslar, Tomasz and Alsos, Inger (2018) Holocene floristic diversity and richness in northeast Norway revealed by sedimentary ancient DNA (sedaDNA) and pollen. Boreas. (doi:10.1111/bor.12357).

Record type: Article

Abstract

We present a Holocene record of floristic diversity and environmental change for the central Varanger Peninsula, Finnmark, based on ancient DNA extracted from the sediments of a small lake (sedaDNA). The record covers the period ca. 10,700 to 3,300 cal. a BP and is complemented by pollen data. Measures of species richness, sample evenness, and beta-diversity were calculated based on sedaDNA sampling intervals and 1000-year time windows. We identified 101 vascular plant and 17 bryophyte taxa, a high proportion (86 %) of which are still growing within the region today. The high species richness (>60 taxa) observed in the early-Holocene, including representatives from all important plant functional groups, shows that modern shrub-tundra communities, and much of their species complement, were in place as early as ca. 10,700 cal. a BP. We infer that post-glacial colonisation of the area occurred prior to the Holocene, during the Younger Dryas stadial or earlier. Abundant DNA of the extra-limital aquatic plant Callitriche hermaphroditica suggests it expanded its range northward between ca. 10,200 and 9,600 cal. a BP, when summers were warmer than present. High values of Pinus DNA occur throughout the record, but we cannot say with certainty if they represent prior local presence; however, pollen influx values >500 grains/cm2/a-1 between ca. 8,000 and 7,300 cal. a BP strongly suggest the presence of pine woodland during this period. As the site lies beyond the modern tree limit of pine, it is likely that this expansion also reflects a response to warmer early-Holocene summers.

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Accepted/In Press date: 18 September 2018
e-pub ahead of print date: 30 October 2018

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 424240
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/424240
ISSN: 0300-9483
PURE UUID: f0c8a184-df16-4592-8147-879dd73edabb
ORCID for Mary Edwards: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-3490-6682
ORCID for Antony Brown: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-1990-4654

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Date deposited: 05 Oct 2018 11:35
Last modified: 17 Dec 2019 05:13

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Contributors

Author: Mary Edwards ORCID iD
Author: Antony Brown ORCID iD
Author: Ludovic Gielly
Author: Youri Lammers
Author: Peter Heintzman
Author: Xavier Ancin-Murguzur
Author: Kari-Anne Bråthen
Author: Tomasz Goslar
Author: Inger Alsos

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